Ijen volcano smoking calderra by Gleb Tarro
Volcanic crater Ijen located at Java, Indonesa and used for sulfur mining. Escaping volcanic gasses are channelled through a network of ceramic pipes, resulting in condensation of molten sulfur. The sulfur, which is deep red in color when molten, pours slowly from the ends of these pipes and pools on the ground, turning bright yellow as it cools. The miners break the cooled material into large pieces and carry it away in baskets. Miners carry loads ranging from 75 kilograms to 90 kilograms , up 300 metres to the crater rim, with a gradient of 45 to 60 degrees and then 3 kilometers down the mountain for weighing.
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