An electric motor, as its name indicates, is a device which uses electricity to create output that is mechanical in nature. Mostly, if not all, devices in our daily lives consist of some type of electric motor. Although the term motor causes motion or infers that the apparatus is in motion, it isn’t necessarily the case all the time. The motion inferred to is that within the motor. How do electric motors operate, if so?
It is best to have some fundamental knowledge on magnets, to have some inkling on what goes into making an electric motor work. As instructed in elementary science, a magnet is composed of two opposing poles. Both reveal immediate pull towards one another, if there is another magnet within close area. Concluding this short recap in physics, we continue to the makings of anDC Motor (Gleichstrommotor) which includes a number of fundamental components, one being an electromagnet. It is usually created via a coil of wires through which an electrical current is run through. Raising the number of coils of wires adds to its force.The second part is a permanent magnet, put within close proximity and surrounding the electromagnet. A magnetic fieldis created causing the coil of wires to turn due to attraction of opposite poles once the electromagnet is switched on. How do these work with just one turn of the coil? Obviously, they do not. To create a true blue motor, it is crucial for the coil to produce a continuously flow of movement which may then be translated into great use. Continuous turning is realized as the electromagnet’s posts are rapidly flipped and switched to cause attraction and repulsion towards and from the permanent magnet’s poles. This then translates magnetic and electrical energy into movement or kinetic energy.There are two kinds of power source. Most industrial motors run on alternating current, being AC Motors (Wechselstrommotoren), which causes the alternating of posts and continuous spinning of electromagnetic coils. Batteries power electric motors running on direct current, being DC Motors (Gleichstrommotoren). To produce the alternating posts effect, there is an additional part in each motor to mimic the alternating direction of the current into the electromagnet. It’s usually powered by alternating current if your device needs a reasonable number of motions. Blenders, fans and trains fall into this group. Direct currentis usually satisfactory for lesser-powered motors including laptop fans and hard disks, hand held vacuum cleaners and electric toothbrushes. Some of these also require a Spur gearbox (Stirnradgetriebe) or Planetary gearbox (Planetengetriebe), to reduce the speed to a suitable level.
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