Lactic Acid is the most commonly found hydroxycarboxylic acid; it is an enigmatic chemical. It is widely used in food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries and has established increased attention for use as a monomer for the production of biodegradable compounds such as poly lactic acid. There are numerous investigations on the development of biotechnological methods for lactic acid production, with a decisive objective of enabling the process to be more efficient and economical.
Lactic Acid is a carboxylic acid widely used as acid regulator in food and beverage. As an acidity regulator, it maintains pH level and it maintains color in baked food and extends shelf life. As a preservative it regulates the pH and extend shelf life and also to inhibit the bacteria. It also includes its functions as an antimicrobial agent, flavor and mineral fortification. It is commonly used as pH regulator as an antimicrobial agent in meat and poultry products. It hinders the appearance of some undesired or harmful bacteria. Lactic Acid ids fully biodegradable and the products of degradation are not toxic certified by FDA.
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Generally recognized as safe (GRAS) is a FDA designation that a specific substance or ingredient is generally considered safe by experts. Lactic acid is considered safe by FDA. The lactic acid market is estimated to witness strong demand from chemicals and pharmaceutical end use industries as lactic acid will continue to be used in applications such as moisturizers, skin lightening agents and rejuvenating and anti-acne agents (personal care industry); and dialysis solution mineral preparations, surgical sutures, prostheses and drug delivery systems (pharmaceuticals).
Lactic acid can be produced naturally and synthetically. Lactic acid occurs naturally in two optical isomers, L(+) and DD(-) lactic acids. Since elevated levels of the D-isomer are harmful to humans, L(+) is the preferred isomer. L(+) lactic acid production is a natural process done by the addition of lime or chalk, the raw materials are then fermented in a fermenter to produce crude calcium lactate. The gypsum is separated from the crude calcium lactate, which results in crude lactic acid. The crude lactic acid id purified and concentrated. Around 90% of the world production of lactic acid is by natural process and rest is produced synthetically.
The report on lactic acid market broadly segments the market by source, by function and by application. Each of these segments is further sub-segmented to provide a holistic view of the market. These segments are subsequently followed by market segmentation based on geography; four geographical regions including Americas, Europe, APAC and RoW were considered while analyzing the market.
The market is presently dominated by developed regions such as Europe and North America. However, Asia Pacific is anticipated to be the fastest growing market for lactic acid and poly lactic acid during the forecast period. Shift from lactic acid to poly lactic acid production by manufacturers is likely to be the prime reason for Asia Pacific experiencing the fastest growth.
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The global lactic acid market is projected to reach around $XX billion by 2021, growing at a CAGR of XX% during the forecast period. In 2015, the market is estimated to be $xx billion. The global poly lactic acid market is projected to reach around $XX billion by 2021, growing at a CAGR of XX% during the forecast period. In 2015, the market was estimated to be dominated by Americas followed by Europe.
Role of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Food Industry:
Fermentation is one of the oldest ways of food preservation. This is made possible by the use of Lactic Acid Bacteria or LAB that plays the chief role in this process. Even with the absence of oxygen, it drives the reactions of transforming the carbohydrate to lactic acid with addition of carbon dioxide and other organic compounds including mannitol and dextran. It also adds to smell, taste, texture and color of the foods. LAB is the essential element for fermentation of sour dough bread, soybean, all fermented milks, beer, and pickles. Since they are micro aerophilic, which do not utilize oxygen, it cannot lead to extreme changes in the food.
In addition, due to its diversity and complexity, it can adjust to different situations. It has also a unique ability to produce bacteriocins and other compounds like ethanol, H2O2, diacetyl, and reuterin, which inhibit non-desirable, pathogenic and food spoilage microorganisms to grow in the food during fermentation. The mechanism is known as bio preservation method that uses beneficial bacteria to preserve the food. United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) said that this process is an alternative and a low-energy requiring process ideal for developing countries and far areas because it does not need refrigeration.
Major companies in this market include:
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