A new take on “fake news” had been bubbling for a while, and now it has the imprimatur of a Washington Post columnist. Here’s Margaret Sullivan:
Fake news has a real meaning—deliberately constructed lies, in the form of news articles, meant to mislead the public. For example: The one falsely claiming that Pope Francis had endorsed Donald Trump, or the one alleging without basis that Hillary Clinton would be indicted just before the election.
But though the term hasn’t been around long, its meaning already is lost.
So far, so good. The phrase “fake news” has been getting plastered willy-nilly on anything that’s false, and sometimes just on something that someone wants to suggest is false. I’ve been complaining about that for more than a month.
But then the column start to go off track:
“The speed with which the term became polarized and in fact a rhetorical weapon illustrates how efficient the conservative media machine has become,” said George Washington University professor Nikki Usher.
Wait. The conservative media machine? Did you think they came up with this?
Let’s be clear about the chain of events here. A year ago, “fake news” had a pretty specific meaning: clickbait sites that publish hoaxes. The hoax of the hour might be political, but it could as easily be a fraudulent report of a celebrity death or a weird-news story that’s too good to be true. Over time the term was also applied to aggregation sites that don’t specialize in hoaxes so much as they simply don’t care whether the stories they’re promoting are hoaxes. Not exactly the same thing, but you still had that basic model of a click-driven indifference to truth.
But when the opinion-spouting class grabbed the phrase en masse right after the election, they used it much more broadly. They applied it to sites with a heavy ideological skew. They applied it to conspiracy theories cooked up by people who might not know what credible evidence looks like but sincerely think they’re chasing a real scandal. (Sullivan’s column alludes twice to “PizzaGate,” a theory that owes its origins not to hoaxsters but to nuts.) Conservatives played a part in this, throwing the words “fake news” at mainstream-media stories that might be better described as “bad reporting” (or, sometimes, as “perfectly fine reporting that uncovered facts I don’t like”). But they didn’t invent the practice. They took what the center-left was doing and bent it to their own ends.
Once you’ve started slapping the “fake news” label on anything that looks like sloppy reporting or ideological bias in the alternative press, you’ve pretty much guaranteed that people will start flinging it when they think they’ve spotted sloppy reporting or ideological bias in the mainstream. No media-machine efficiency was required. Ask the right who taught them how to do this stuff, and they can look up from their bed and tell you: You, all right? I learned it by watching you!