“I believe that each of us who has his place to make should go where men are wanted, and where employment is not bestowed as alms,” advised New York Tribune editor Horace Greeley in a famous 1871 letter. “Of course, I say to all who are in want of work, Go West!” Basically, Greeley was telling Americans to pick up and go to where the jobs and opportunities are.
Americans were once more willing to heed Greeley’s advice. From the end of World War II through the 1980s, the Census Bureau reports, about 20 percent of Americans changed their residences annually, with more than 3 percent moving to a different state each year. Now more are staying home. In November, the Census Bureau reported that Americans were moving at historically low rates: Only 11.2 percent moved in 2015, and just 1.5 percent moved to a different state. Consequently, many people are stuck in places that offer few opportunities. Why? The unintended consequences of local and state policies are a huge barrier to labor mobility.