# Scattering Amplitudes and the Positive Grassmannian

Perhaps I exaggerated a little bit in the previous posting, when I talked about declining theoretical physics. The work of Nima Arkani-Hamed and others represents something which makes me very optimistic and I would be happy if I could understand the horrible technicalities of their work. The article Scattering Amplitudes and the Positive Grassmannian by Arkani-Hamed, Bourjaily, Cachazo, Goncharov, Postnikov, and Trnka summarizes the recent situation in a form, which should be accessible to ordinary physicist. Lubos has already discussed the article.

** All scattering amplitudes have on shell amplitudes for massless particles as building bricks**

The key idea is that all planar amplitudes can be constructed from on shell amplitudes: all virtual particles are actually real. In zero energy ontology I ended up with the representation of TGD analogs of Feynman diagrams using only mass shell massless states with both positive and negative energies. The enormous number of kinematic constraints eliminates UV and IR divergences and also the description of massive particles as bound states of massless ones becomes possible.

In TGD framework quantum classical correspondence requires a space-time correlate for the on mass shell property and it indeed exists. The mathematically ill-defined path integral over all 4-surfaces is replaced with a superposition of preferred extremals of Kähler action analogous to Bohr orbits, and one has only a functional integral over the 3-D ends at the light-like boundaries of causal diamond (Euclidian/Minkowskian space-time regions give real/imaginary Chern-Simons exponent to the vacuum functional). This would be obviously the deeper principle behind on mass shell representation of scattering amplitudes that Nima and others are certainly trying to identify. This principle in turn reduces to general coordinate invariance at the level of the world of classical worlds.

Quantum classical correspondence and quantum ergodicity would imply even stronger condition: the quantal correlation functions should be identical with classical correlation functions for any preferred extremal in the superposition: all preferred extremals in the superposition would be statistically equivalent (see the earlier posting). 4-D spin glass degeneracy of Kähler action however suggests that this is is probably too strong a condition applying only to building bricks of the superposition.

Minimal surface property is the geometric counterpart for masslessness and the preferred extremals are also minimal surfaces: this property reduces to the generalization of complex structure at space-time surfaces, which I call Hamilton-Jacobi structure for the Minkowskian signature of the induced metric. Einstein Maxwell equations with cosmological term are also satisfied.

** Massless extremals and twistor approach**

The decomposition M^{4}=M^{2}× E^{2} is fundamental in the formulation of quantum TGD, in the number theoretical vision about TGD, in the construction of preferred extremals, and for the vision about generalized Feynman diagrams. It is also fundamental in the decomposition of the degrees of string to longitudinal and transversal ones. An additional item to the list is that also the states appearing in thermodynamical ensemble in p-adic thermodynamics correspond to four-momenta in M^{2} fixed by the direction of the Lorentz boost. In twistor approach to TGD the possibility to decompose also internal lines to massless states at parallel space-time sheets is crucial.

Can one find a concrete identification for M^{2}× E^{2} decomposition at the level of preferred extremals? Could these preferred extremals be interpreted as the internal lines of generalized Feynman diagrams carrying massless momenta? Could one identify the mass of particle predicted by p-adic thermodynamics with the sum of massless classical momenta assignable to two preferred extremals of this kind connected by wormhole contacts defining the elementary particle?

Candidates for this kind of preferred extremals indeed exist. Local M^{2}× E^{2} decomposition and light-like longitudinal massless momentum assignable to M^{2} characterizes “massless extremals” (MEs, “topological light rays”). The simplest MEs correspond to single space-time sheet carrying a conserved light-like M^{2} momentum. For several MEs connected by wormhole contacts the longitudinal massless momenta are not conserved anymore but their sum defines a time-like conserved four-momentum: one has a bound states of massless MEs. The stable wormhole contacts binding MEs together possess Kähler magnetic charge and serve as building bricks of elementary particles. Particles are necessary closed magnetic flux tubes having two wormhole contacts at their ends and connecting the two MEs.

The sum of the classical massless momenta assignable to the pair of MEs is conserved even when they exchange momentum. Quantum classical correspondence requires that the conserved classical rest energy of the particle equals to the prediction of p-adic mass calculations. The massless momenta assignable to MEs would naturally correspond to the massless momenta propagating along the internal lines of generalized Feynman diagrams assumed in zero energy ontology. Masslessness of virtual particles makes also possible twistor approach. This supports the view that MEs are fundamental for the twistor approach in TGD framework.

** Scattering amplitudes as representations for braids whose threads can fuse at 3-vertices**

Just a little comment about the content of the article. The main message of the article is that non-equivalent contributions to a given scattering amplitude in N=4 SYM represent elements of the group of permutations of external lines – or to be more precise – decorated permutations which replace permutation group S_{n} with n! elements with its decorated version containing 2^{n}n! elements. Besides 3-vertex the basic dynamical process is permutation having the exchange of neighboring lines as a generating permutation completely analogous to fundamental braiding. BFCW bridge has interpretation as a representations for the basic braiding operation.

This supports the TGD inspired proposal (TGD as almost topological QFT) that generalized Feynman diagrams are in some sense also knot or braid diagrams allowing besides braiding operation also two 3-vertices. The first 3-vertex generalizes the standard stringy 3-vertex but with totally different interpretation having nothing to do with particle decay: rather particle travels along two paths simultaneously after 1→2 decay. Second 3-vertex generalizes the 3-vertex of ordinary Feynman diagram (three 4-D lines of generalized Feynman diagram identified as Euclidian space-time regions meet at this vertex). I have discussed this vision in detail here. The main idea is that in TGD framework knotting and braiding emerges at two levels.

- At the level of space-time surface string world sheets at which the induced spinor fields (except right-handed neutrino, see this) are localized due to the conservation of electric charge can form 2-knots and can intersect at discrete points in the generic case. The boundaries of strings world sheets at light-like wormhole throat orbits and at space-like 3-surfaces defining the ends of the space-time at light-like boundaries of causal diamonds can form ordinary 1-knots, and get linked and braided. Elementary particles themselves correspond to closed loops at the ends of space-time surface and can also get knotted (for possible effects see this).

^{2}characterizing given causal diamond. Therefore the 2-D representation of Feynman diagrams has concrete physical interpretation in TGD. These lines can intersect and what suggests itself is a description of non-planar diagrams (having this kind of intersections) in terms of an algebraic knot theory. A natural guess is that it is this knot theoretic operation which allows to describe also non-planar diagrams by reducing them to planar ones as one does when one constructs knot invariant by reducing the knot to a trivial one. Scattering amplitudes would be basically knot invariants.

“Almost topological” has also a meaning usually not assigned with it. Thurston’s geometrization conjecture stating that geometric invariants of canonical representation of manifold as Riemann geometry, defined topological invariants, could generalize somehow. For instance, the geometric invariants of preferred extremals could be seen as topological or more refined invariants (symplectic, conformal in the sense of 4-D generalization of conformal structure). If quantum ergodicity holds true, the statistical geometric invariants defined by the classical correlation functions of various induced classical gauge fields for preferred extremals could be regarded as this kind of invariants for sub-manifolds. What would distinguish TGD from standard topological QFT would be that the invariants in question would involve length scale and thus have a physical content in the usual sense of the word!

Perhaps I exaggerated a little bit in the previous posting, when I talked about declining theoretical physics. The work of Nima Arkani-Hamed and others represents something which makes me very optimistic and I would be happy if I could understand the horrible technicalities of their work. The article Scattering Amplitudes and the Positive Grassmannian by Arkani-Hamed, Bourjaily, Cachazo, Goncharov, Postnikov, and Trnka summarizes the recent situation in a form, which should be accessible to ordinary physicist. Lubos has already discussed the article.

** All scattering amplitudes have on shell amplitudes for massless particles as building bricks**

The key idea is that all planar amplitudes can be constructed from on shell amplitudes: all virtual particles are actually real. In zero energy ontology I ended up with the representation of TGD analogs of Feynman diagrams using only mass shell massless states with both positive and negative energies. The enormous number of kinematic constraints eliminates UV and IR divergences and also the description of massive particles as bound states of massless ones becomes possible.

In TGD framework quantum classical correspondence requires a space-time correlate for the on mass shell property and it indeed exists. The mathematically ill-defined path integral over all 4-surfaces is replaced with a superposition of preferred extremals of Kähler action analogous to Bohr orbits, and one has only a functional integral over the 3-D ends at the light-like boundaries of causal diamond (Euclidian/Minkowskian space-time regions give real/imaginary Chern-Simons exponent to the vacuum functional). This would be obviously the deeper principle behind on mass shell representation of scattering amplitudes that Nima and others are certainly trying to identify. This principle in turn reduces to general coordinate invariance at the level of the world of classical worlds.

Quantum classical correspondence and quantum ergodicity would imply even stronger condition: the quantal correlation functions should be identical with classical correlation functions for any preferred extremal in the superposition: all preferred extremals in the superposition would be statistically equivalent (see the earlier posting). 4-D spin glass degeneracy of Kähler action however suggests that this is is probably too strong a condition applying only to building bricks of the superposition.

Minimal surface property is the geometric counterpart for masslessness and the preferred extremals are also minimal surfaces: this property reduces to the generalization of complex structure at space-time surfaces, which I call Hamilton-Jacobi structure for the Minkowskian signature of the induced metric. Einstein Maxwell equations with cosmological term are also satisfied.

** Massless extremals and twistor approach**

The decomposition M^{4}=M^{2}× E^{2} is fundamental in the formulation of quantum TGD, in the number theoretical vision about TGD, in the construction of preferred extremals, and for the vision about generalized Feynman diagrams. It is also fundamental in the decomposition of the degrees of string to longitudinal and transversal ones. An additional item to the list is that also the states appearing in thermodynamical ensemble in p-adic thermodynamics correspond to four-momenta in M^{2} fixed by the direction of the Lorentz boost. In twistor approach to TGD the possibility to decompose also internal lines to massless states at parallel space-time sheets is crucial.

Can one find a concrete identification for M^{2}× E^{2} decomposition at the level of preferred extremals? Could these preferred extremals be interpreted as the internal lines of generalized Feynman diagrams carrying massless momenta? Could one identify the mass of particle predicted by p-adic thermodynamics with the sum of massless classical momenta assignable to two preferred extremals of this kind connected by wormhole contacts defining the elementary particle?

Candidates for this kind of preferred extremals indeed exist. Local M^{2}× E^{2} decomposition and light-like longitudinal massless momentum assignable to M^{2} characterizes “massless extremals” (MEs, “topological light rays”). The simplest MEs correspond to single space-time sheet carrying a conserved light-like M^{2} momentum. For several MEs connected by wormhole contacts the longitudinal massless momenta are not conserved anymore but their sum defines a time-like conserved four-momentum: one has a bound states of massless MEs. The stable wormhole contacts binding MEs together possess Kähler magnetic charge and serve as building bricks of elementary particles. Particles are necessary closed magnetic flux tubes having two wormhole contacts at their ends and connecting the two MEs.

The sum of the classical massless momenta assignable to the pair of MEs is conserved even when they exchange momentum. Quantum classical correspondence requires that the conserved classical rest energy of the particle equals to the prediction of p-adic mass calculations. The massless momenta assignable to MEs would naturally correspond to the massless momenta propagating along the internal lines of generalized Feynman diagrams assumed in zero energy ontology. Masslessness of virtual particles makes also possible twistor approach. This supports the view that MEs are fundamental for the twistor approach in TGD framework.

** Scattering amplitudes as representations for braids whose threads can fuse at 3-vertices**

Just a little comment about the content of the article. The main message of the article is that non-equivalent contributions to a given scattering amplitude in N=4 SYM represent elements of the group of permutations of external lines – or to be more precise – decorated permutations which replace permutation group S_{n} with n! elements with its decorated version containing 2^{n}n! elements. Besides 3-vertex the basic dynamical process is permutation having the exchange of neighboring lines as a generating permutation completely analogous to fundamental braiding. BFCW bridge has interpretation as a representations for the basic braiding operation.

This supports the TGD inspired proposal (TGD as almost topological QFT) that generalized Feynman diagrams are in some sense also knot or braid diagrams allowing besides braiding operation also two 3-vertices. The first 3-vertex generalizes the standard stringy 3-vertex but with totally different interpretation having nothing to do with particle decay: rather particle travels along two paths simultaneously after 1→2 decay. Second 3-vertex generalizes the 3-vertex of ordinary Feynman diagram (three 4-D lines of generalized Feynman diagram identified as Euclidian space-time regions meet at this vertex). I have discussed this vision in detail here. The main idea is that in TGD framework knotting and braiding emerges at two levels.

- At the level of space-time surface string world sheets at which the induced spinor fields (except right-handed neutrino, see this) are localized due to the conservation of electric charge can form 2-knots and can intersect at discrete points in the generic case. The boundaries of strings world sheets at light-like wormhole throat orbits and at space-like 3-surfaces defining the ends of the space-time at light-like boundaries of causal diamonds can form ordinary 1-knots, and get linked and braided. Elementary particles themselves correspond to closed loops at the ends of space-time surface and can also get knotted (for possible effects see this).

^{2}characterizing given causal diamond. Therefore the 2-D representation of Feynman diagrams has concrete physical interpretation in TGD. These lines can intersect and what suggests itself is a description of non-planar diagrams (having this kind of intersections) in terms of an algebraic knot theory. A natural guess is that it is this knot theoretic operation which allows to describe also non-planar diagrams by reducing them to planar ones as one does when one constructs knot invariant by reducing the knot to a trivial one. Scattering amplitudes would be basically knot invariants.

“Almost topological” has also a meaning usually not assigned with it. Thurston’s geometrization conjecture stating that geometric invariants of canonical representation of manifold as Riemann geometry, defined topological invariants, could generalize somehow. For instance, the geometric invariants of preferred extremals could be seen as topological or more refined invariants (symplectic, conformal in the sense of 4-D generalization of conformal structure). If quantum ergodicity holds true, the statistical geometric invariants defined by the classical correlation functions of various induced classical gauge fields for preferred extremals could be regarded as this kind of invariants for sub-manifolds. What would distinguish TGD from standard topological QFT would be that the invariants in question would involve length scale and thus have a physical content in the usual sense of the word!

For background see the chapter The recent vision about preferred extremals and solutions of the modified Dirac equation of “Physics as Infinite-dimensional Geometry” or the article Could N =2 or N =4 SUSY be a part of TGD after all?.

2013-02-16 11:06:51

Source: http://matpitka.blogspot.com/2012/12/scattering-amplitudes-and-positive.html

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