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A pseudo-operculum in sturgeons

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Short one today.
because sharks are getting a makeover and review.

Shark-like
Chondrosteus (Fig. 1) is the phylogenetically first taxon we see with an operculum, but no preoperculum.

The operculum continues and expands
with the other shark-like taxon, the paddlefish, Polyodon. In neither taxa are these bones well-ossified, as in the bony fish clade, Osteichthyes (Fig. 4). In sharks the operculum is lost only to be regained eons later by reversal in bony fish. The ratfish, Chimaera, also redevelops an operculum.

Figure 1. Chondrosteus animation (2 frames) in situ and reconstructed in lateral view. This is the transitional taxon linking sturgeons to bony fish + sharks. ” data-medium-file=”https://pterosaurheresies.files.wordpress.com/2020/11/chondrosteus-palatal588.gif?w=216″ data-large-file=”https://pterosaurheresies.files.wordpress.com/2020/11/chondrosteus-palatal588.gif?w=584″ class=”size-full wp-image-51192″ src=”https://pterosaurheresies.files.wordpress.com/2020/11/chondrosteus-palatal588.gif?w=584&h=809″ alt=”igure 1. Chondrosteus animation (2 frames) in situ and reconstructed in lateral view. This is the transitional taxon linking sturgeons to bony fish + sharks.” width=”584″ height=”809″ />

Figure 1. Chondrosteus animation (2 frames) in situ and reconstructed in lateral view. This is the transitional taxon linking sturgeons to bony fish + sharks.

Sturgeons appear to have an operculum, too,
(Fig. 2) but it is created by the hyomandibular, the dark green bone (Fig. 2) that supports the pro to-mandible. As you’ll note, Chondrosteus developed a separate hyomandibular (Fig. 1, dark green) and operculum (Fig. 1, lavender).

Figure 1. Skull of Pseudoscaphorhynchus. Note the mouth is created by the lacrimal and angular, not the maxilla and dentary, which are tooth-bearing bones in more derived fish. ” data-medium-file=”https://pterosaurheresies.files.wordpress.com/2019/12/sturgeon.pseudoscaphirhynchus588.jpg?w=193″ data-large-file=”https://pterosaurheresies.files.wordpress.com/2019/12/sturgeon.pseudoscaphirhynchus588.jpg?w=584″ class=”size-full wp-image-41368″ src=”https://pterosaurheresies.files.wordpress.com/2019/12/sturgeon.pseudoscaphirhynchus588.jpg?w=584&h=908″ alt=”Figure 1. Skull of Pseudoscaphorhynchus. Note the mouth is created by the lacrimal and angular, not the maxilla and dentary, which are tooth-bearing bones in more derived fish.” width=”584″ height=”908″ srcset=”https://pterosaurheresies.files.wordpress.com/2019/12/sturgeon.pseudoscaphirhynchus588.jpg?w=584&h=908 584w, https://pterosaurheresies.files.wordpress.com/2019/12/sturgeon.pseudoscaphirhynchus588.jpg?w=96&h=150 96w, https://pterosaurheresies.files.wordpress.com/2019/12/sturgeon.pseudoscaphirhynchus588.jpg?w=193&h=300 193w, https://pterosaurheresies.files.wordpress.com/2019/12/sturgeon.pseudoscaphirhynchus588.jpg 588w” sizes=”(max-width: 584px) 100vw, 584px” />

Figure 2. Skull of Pseudoscaphorhynchus. Note the mouth is created by the lacrimal and angular, not the maxilla and dentary, which are tooth-bearing bones in more derived fish.

The basalmost living bony fish,
the moray eel, Gymnothorax (Fig.  3), doesn’t have much of an operculum.

Figure 3. Gymnothorax skull x-ray. Note the lack of an operculum. ” data-medium-file=”https://pterosaurheresies.files.wordpress.com/2020/12/gymnothorax-xray588.jpg?w=300″ data-large-file=”https://pterosaurheresies.files.wordpress.com/2020/12/gymnothorax-xray588.jpg?w=584″ class=”size-full wp-image-51264″ src=”https://pterosaurheresies.files.wordpress.com/2020/12/gymnothorax-xray588.jpg?w=584&h=373″ alt=”Figure 3. Gymnothorax skull x-ray. Note the lack of an operculum. ” width=”584″ height=”373″ srcset=”https://pterosaurheresies.files.wordpress.com/2020/12/gymnothorax-xray588.jpg?w=584&h=373 584w, https://pterosaurheresies.files.wordpress.com/2020/12/gymnothorax-xray588.jpg?w=150&h=96 150w, https://pterosaurheresies.files.wordpress.com/2020/12/gymnothorax-xray588.jpg?w=300&h=192 300w, https://pterosaurheresies.files.wordpress.com/2020/12/gymnothorax-xray588.jpg 588w” sizes=”(max-width: 584px) 100vw, 584px” />

Figure 3. Gymnothorax skull x-ray. Note the lack of an operculum.

The basal bony fish
Calamopleurus (Fig. 4) has an well-ossified preoperculum and operculum. Note the many shared traits with Gymnothorax (Fig. 3).

Figure 1. The skull of Calaomopleurus from Long 1995 and reconstructed using DGS methods. ” data-medium-file=”https://pterosaurheresies.files.wordpress.com/2020/07/calamopleurus_skull588.jpg?w=217″ data-large-file=”https://pterosaurheresies.files.wordpress.com/2020/07/calamopleurus_skull588.jpg?w=584″ class=”size-full wp-image-46507″ src=”https://pterosaurheresies.files.wordpress.com/2020/07/calamopleurus_skull588.jpg?w=584&h=807″ alt=”Figure 1. The skull of Calaomopleurus from Long 1995 and reconstructed using DGS methods.” width=”584″ height=”807″ srcset=”https://pterosaurheresies.files.wordpress.com/2020/07/calamopleurus_skull588.jpg?w=584&h=807 584w, https://pterosaurheresies.files.wordpress.com/2020/07/calamopleurus_skull588.jpg?w=108&h=150 108w, https://pterosaurheresies.files.wordpress.com/2020/07/calamopleurus_skull588.jpg?w=217&h=300 217w, https://pterosaurheresies.files.wordpress.com/2020/07/calamopleurus_skull588.jpg 588w” sizes=”(max-width: 584px) 100vw, 584px” />

Figure 4. The skull of Calaomopleurus from Long 1995 and reconstructed using DGS methods.

The other clade of bony fish,
represented by the bowfin, Amia (Fig. 5), likewise have a well-developed preoperculum and operculum.

Figure 1. Amia juvenile with DGS colors added. Image from Digimorph.org and used with permission. ” data-medium-file=”https://pterosaurheresies.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/amia-juvenile_lateral588.jpg?w=278″ data-large-file=”https://pterosaurheresies.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/amia-juvenile_lateral588.jpg?w=584″ class=”size-full wp-image-49850″ src=”https://pterosaurheresies.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/amia-juvenile_lateral588.jpg?w=584&h=630″ alt=”Figure 1. Amia juvenile with DGS colors added. Image from Digimorph.org and used with permission.” width=”584″ height=”630″ srcset=”https://pterosaurheresies.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/amia-juvenile_lateral588.jpg?w=584&h=630 584w, https://pterosaurheresies.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/amia-juvenile_lateral588.jpg?w=139&h=150 139w, https://pterosaurheresies.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/amia-juvenile_lateral588.jpg?w=278&h=300 278w, https://pterosaurheresies.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/amia-juvenile_lateral588.jpg 588w” sizes=”(max-width: 584px) 100vw, 584px” />

Figure 5. Amia juvenile with DGS colors added. Image from Digimorph.org and used with permission.



Source: https://pterosaurheresies.wordpress.com/2020/12/02/a-pseudo-operculum-in-sturgeons/


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