Read the Beforeitsnews.com story here. Advertise at Before It's News here.
Profile image
Story Views
Now:
Last hour:
Last 24 hours:
Total:

Agnolin 2021 on Brontornis affinities (still excluding parrots and stinkbirds)

% of readers think this story is Fact. Add your two cents.


Yes, it’s massive taxon exclusion time again
as Agnolin 2021 tells us that Brontornis (Fig. 2) is a giant goose.

We’ve known since 2011
that Brontornis is closely related to Gastornis (Figs. 1, 2) the giant flightless parrot.  Derived from hoatzins first, then sparrows, then even more distantly from fowl (= chickens, pheasants, peacocks), these giant flightless, herbivorous birds have all the hallmarks (= characters) of Ara, the parrot (Fig. 1).

Unfortunately,
these taxa were excluded from Agnolin’s 2021 analysis, again.

Figure 1. Gastornis (=Diatryma) to scale with Ara the parrot (lower right). ” data-medium-file=”https://pterosaurheresies.files.wordpress.com/2017/11/gastornis_skeleton588.jpg?w=222″ data-large-file=”https://pterosaurheresies.files.wordpress.com/2017/11/gastornis_skeleton588.jpg?w=584″ class=”size-full wp-image-28738″ src=”https://pterosaurheresies.files.wordpress.com/2017/11/gastornis_skeleton588.jpg?w=584&h=788″ alt=”Figure 1. Gastornis (=Diatryma) to scale with Ara the parrot (lower right).” width=”584″ height=”788″ srcset=”https://pterosaurheresies.files.wordpress.com/2017/11/gastornis_skeleton588.jpg?w=584&h=788 584w, https://pterosaurheresies.files.wordpress.com/2017/11/gastornis_skeleton588.jpg?w=111&h=150 111w, https://pterosaurheresies.files.wordpress.com/2017/11/gastornis_skeleton588.jpg?w=222&h=300 222w, https://pterosaurheresies.files.wordpress.com/2017/11/gastornis_skeleton588.jpg 588w” sizes=”(max-width: 584px) 100vw, 584px” />

Figure 1. Gastornis (=Diatryma) to scale with Ara the parrot (lower right).

Figure 3. Skulls of Gastornis, Brontornis and Ara, the scarlet macaw. ” data-medium-file=”https://pterosaurheresies.files.wordpress.com/2017/11/brontornis_gastornis_ara588.jpg?w=195″ data-large-file=”https://pterosaurheresies.files.wordpress.com/2017/11/brontornis_gastornis_ara588.jpg?w=584″ class=”size-full wp-image-28746″ src=”https://pterosaurheresies.files.wordpress.com/2017/11/brontornis_gastornis_ara588.jpg?w=584&h=900″ alt=”Figure 3. Skulls of Gastornis, Brontornis and Ara, the scarlet macaw.” width=”584″ height=”900″ srcset=”https://pterosaurheresies.files.wordpress.com/2017/11/brontornis_gastornis_ara588.jpg?w=584&h=900 584w, https://pterosaurheresies.files.wordpress.com/2017/11/brontornis_gastornis_ara588.jpg?w=97&h=150 97w, https://pterosaurheresies.files.wordpress.com/2017/11/brontornis_gastornis_ara588.jpg?w=195&h=300 195w, https://pterosaurheresies.files.wordpress.com/2017/11/brontornis_gastornis_ara588.jpg 588w” sizes=”(max-width: 584px) 100vw, 584px” />

Figure 3. Skulls of Gastornis, Brontornis and Ara, the scarlet macaw.

Agnolin 2007
also considered Brontornis a giant goose (Anseriformes).

Agnolin 2021
wrote, “After few changes in the data matrix, Brontornis results as part of a clade composed by the giant anseriforms designated by Worthy et al. 2017 as Gastornithiformes. This result is in agreement with recent proposals that excluded Brontornis from phorusrhacoid cariamiforms (where it was traditionally nested) and included it among Anseriformes.”

“Finally, the nesting of Brontornis among herbivorous giant anseriforms, together with several aspects of its mandibular morphology reinforces previous thoughts that Brontornis was herbivorous in habits.”

Fowl, sparrows, hoatzin (= stinkbirds) and parrots are all also herbivorous.

Unfortunately Agnolin 2007, 2021 supports
the hypothesis that fowl and geese are closely related in a traditional genomic clade, Galloanseriformes (= chicken + geese). The large reptile tree (LRT, 1803+ taxa; subset Fig. x) does not support that relationship. Rather fowl and geese are widely separated in the LRT where fowl are in cyan (= bright light blue, Fig. x) and geese are in pale magenta (= pinkish purple Fig. x).

Figure 4. Subset of the LRT focusing on birds. Chongmingia is highlighted in yellow in the Scansoriopterygidae. ” data-medium-file=”https://pterosaurheresies.files.wordpress.com/2020/11/bird_cladogram588_2020-1.jpg?w=120″ data-large-file=”https://pterosaurheresies.files.wordpress.com/2020/11/bird_cladogram588_2020-1.jpg?w=410″ class=”size-full wp-image-50401″ src=”https://pterosaurheresies.files.wordpress.com/2020/11/bird_cladogram588_2020-1.jpg?w=584&h=1457″ alt=”Figure 4. Subset of the LRT focusing on birds. Chongmingia is highlighted in yellow in the Scansoriopterygidae.” width=”584″ height=”1457″ srcset=”https://pterosaurheresies.files.wordpress.com/2020/11/bird_cladogram588_2020-1.jpg?w=584&h=1457 584w, https://pterosaurheresies.files.wordpress.com/2020/11/bird_cladogram588_2020-1.jpg?w=60&h=150 60w, https://pterosaurheresies.files.wordpress.com/2020/11/bird_cladogram588_2020-1.jpg?w=120&h=300 120w, https://pterosaurheresies.files.wordpress.com/2020/11/bird_cladogram588_2020-1.jpg 588w” sizes=”(max-width: 584px) 100vw, 584px” />

Figure 4. Subset of the LRT focusing on birds. Chongmingia is highlighted in yellow in the Scansoriopterygidae.

Taxon exclusion
will always come back to haunt/bite you (pick your own favorite cliché). Add taxa as a remedy for this malady. It works every time.


References
Agnolin F 2007. Brontornis burmeisteri Moreno & Mercerat, un Anseriformes (Aves) gigante del Mioceno Medio de Patagonia, Argentina. Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales, n.s.9, 15-25.
Agnolin F 2021. Reappraisal on the Phylogenetic Relationships of the Enigmatic Flightless Bird (Brontornis burmeisteri) Moreno and Mercerat, 1891. Diversity 2021, 13, 90. https://doi.org/10.3390/d13020090
Andors AV 1992. Reappraisal of the Eocene ground bird Diatryma (Aves: Anserimorphae). Science Series Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County. 36: 109–125.
Bourdon E and Cracraft J 2011. Gastornis is a terror bird: New insights into the evolution of the cariamae (Aves, Neornithes). Society of Vertebrate Paleontology 71stAnnual Meeting Program and Abstracts, p. 75
Buffetaut E 2014. Tertiary ground birds from Patagonia (Argentina) in the Tournouër collection of the Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris. Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France. 185(3):207–214.
Cope ED 1876. On a gigantic bird from the Eocene of New Mexico. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 28 (2): 10–11.
Hackett S et al. 2008. A phylogenetic study of birds reveals their evolutionary history. Science 320:1763–1768.
Hébert E 1855a. Note sur le tibia du Gastornis pariensis [sic] [Note on the tibia of G. parisiensis]. C. R. Hebd. Acad. Sci. Paris (in French) 40: 579–582.
Hébert E 1855b. Note sur le fémur du Gastornis parisiensis [Note on the femur of G. parisiensis]. C. R. Hebd. Acad. Sci. Paris (in French) 40: 1214–1217.
Linnaeus C 1758. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata.
Matthew WD, Granger W and Stein W 1917. The skeleton of Diatryma, a gigantic bird from the Lower Eocene of Wyoming. Buletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 37(11): 307-354.
Mustoe GE, Tucker DS and Kemplin KL 2012. Giant Eocene bird footprints from northwest Washington, USA. Palaeontology. 55 (6): 1293–1305.
Owen R 1843. On the remains of Dinornis, an extinct gigantic struthious bird. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London: 8–10, 144–146.
Prévost C 1855. Annonce de la découverte d’un oiseau fossile de taille gigantesque, trouvé à la partie inférieure de l’argile plastique des terrains parisiens [Announcement of the discovery of a fossil bird of gigantic size, found in the lower Argile Plastique formation of the Paris region]. C. R. Hebd. Acad. Sci. Paris (in French) 40: 554–557.
Prum RO et al. (6 co-authors) 2015. A comprehensive phylogeny of birds (Aves) using targeted next-generation DNA sequencing. Nature doi:10.1038/nature15697
Witmer L and Rose K 1991. Biomechanics of the jaw apparatus of the gigantic Eocene bird Diatryma: Implications for diet and mode of life. Paleobiology. 17 (2): 95–120.
Worthy TH, Degrange FJ, Handley WD and Lee MSY 2017. The evolution of giant flightless birds and novel phylogenetic relationships for extinct fowl (Aves, Galloanseres). Royal Society Open Science 4: 170975. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.170975
Wright TF, et al. (ten co-authors) 2008. A Multilocus Molecular Phylogeny of the Parrots (Psittaciformes): Support for a Gondwanan Origin during the Cretaceous. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 25 (10), 2141-2156 DOI: 10.1093/molbev/msn160.

https://pterosaurheresies.wordpress.com/2017/11/06/the-origin-of-giant-birds-gastornis-diatryma-the-giant-parrot/

https://pterosaurheresies.wordpress.com/2017/09/15/lrt-sheds-light-on-gastornis-its-a-giant-flightless-parrot/



Source: https://pterosaurheresies.wordpress.com/2021/02/22/agnolin-2021-on-brontornis-affinities-still-excluding-parrots-and-stinkbirds/


Before It’s News® is a community of individuals who report on what’s going on around them, from all around the world.

Anyone can join.
Anyone can contribute.
Anyone can become informed about their world.

"United We Stand" Click Here To Create Your Personal Citizen Journalist Account Today, Be Sure To Invite Your Friends.

Please Help Support BeforeitsNews by trying our Natural Health Products below!


Order by Phone at 888-809-8385 or online at https://mitocopper.com M - F 9am to 5pm EST


Order by Phone at 888-809-8385 or online at https://www.herbanomic.com M - F 9am to 5pm EST


Humic & Fulvic Trace Minerals Complex - Nature's most important supplement! Vivid Dreams again!

HNEX HydroNano EXtracellular Water - Improve immune system health and reduce inflammation

Ultimate Clinical Potency Curcumin - Natural pain relief, reduce inflammation and so much more.

MitoCopper - Bioavailable Copper destroys pathogens and gives you more energy. (See Blood Video)
Oxy Powder - Natural Colon Cleanser!  Cleans out toxic buildup with oxygen! 
Nascent Iodine - Promotes detoxification, mental focus and thyroid health.
Smart Meter Cover -  Reduces Smart Meter radiation by 96%!  (See Video)

Immusist Beverage Concentrate - Proprietary blend, formulated to reduce inflammation while hydrating and oxygenating the cells.

Report abuse
Loading...

Comments

Your Comments
Question   Razz  Sad   Evil  Exclaim  Smile  Redface  Biggrin  Surprised  Eek   Confused   Cool  LOL   Mad   Twisted  Rolleyes   Wink  Idea  Arrow  Neutral  Cry   Mr. Green

MOST RECENT
Load more ...

SignUp

Login

Newsletter

Email this story
Email this story

If you really want to ban this commenter, please write down the reason:

If you really want to disable all recommended stories, click on OK button. After that, you will be redirect to your options page.