The Herbs That Process Anti Asthma Potency, Scientists Say
By Kyle J. Norton, Scholar, Master of Nutrition
Respiratory Disease is a medical conditions which affect the breathing organ and tissues including Inflammatory lung disease, such as obstructive lung diseases, restrictive lung diseases, respiratory tract infections, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, the nerves,……. and muscles breathing.
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease, affecting the air way of the lung with recurring symptoms, such as wheezing, chest tightness, shortness of breath, and coughing.
The disease affects people of all ages, and mostly starts during childhood.
According to American academy, allergy, asthma and immunology, about 1 in 10 children (10%) had asthma and 1 in 12 adults (8%) had asthma in 2009. (about 25 million, or 8% of the U.S. population)(1).
Asthma symptoms vary from person to person. However, asthma attacks may induce serious symptoms of shortness of breath, chest tightness or pain,…… and cough that causes trouble sleeping
Some researchers suggested that asthma attack may be results of allergic effects, such as such as pollen, mold spores, occupational effects such as gases or dust,….. and physical effect such as exercise.
Epidemiological studies, linking herbs in reduced risk and treatment have been inconclusive(a)(b)(c)(d), but certain herbs have been found to be effectively in some studies.
1. Angelica sinensis (Oliv.)
Dang Qui (Angelica sinensis) is a herb of Genus Angelica from the family Apiaceae, indigenous to China.
The herb has been used as a Queen herb in traditional Chinese medicine as an antispasmodic and vasodilatory agent, and to balance the hormones in women for a normal menstrual cycle and menstruation and strengthen heart, spleen, kidneys, and liver for both men and women, etc.
In other words, Dang Qui is used frequently to treat gynecological ailments, fatigue, mild anemia and high blood pressure.
The herb also processes analgesic, anti-inflammatory, etc..
Ethanolic extract (AD of Angelica in the study at Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, showed to suppress airway allergic inflammation, by significantly lower airway eosinophilia, cytokine levels, including interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha levels, mucus production and immunoglobulin (Ig)E in mice(1).
Danggui Buxue Tang, a composition of Angelica sinensis (AS) and Astragalus membranaceus (AM), in OVA-sensitized mice, its DBT2 or DBT3 showed no improved effects relative to DBT1 in treating asthmatic symptoms but DBT1 showed to suppress airway hyperresponsiveness and OVA-immunoglobulin E (IgE) in serum(2).
According to Thammasat University, ethanol found in of Angelica sinensis exerted its anti-inflammatory activity through antioxidant effects(3).
2. Ginkgo biloba
Ginkgo biloba is oldest living tree species, genus Ginkgo, belongings to the family Ginkgoaceae, native to China, from temperate zone to subtropical zone and some parts of north America.
It Has been used in traditional herbal medicine in treating impotence, memory loss, respiratory diseases, circulatory disorders and deafness as well as preventing drunkenness, and bedwetting.
Ginkgolide B (GKB), a major chemical compound of ginkgo biloba, in BALB/c mice exerted its anti asthmatic activity through inhibited the increase of T-helper 2 cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and decreased eosinophil count via inhibition of the ERK/MAPK signaling pathway(4).
The composition of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract (EGb761), astaxanthin (ASX) and vitamin C, also inhibited asthma-associated inflammation in asthmatic guinea-pigs(5)
And, Ginkgo biloba extracts showed to inhibit asthmatic disorder through suppression tof NF-kappaB gene expression actively in HL-60 cells(6).
According to Dokuz Eylul University Hospital, biloba alleviates all established chronic histological changes of lung except smooth muscle thickness in a mouse model of asthma(7).
Licorice (Glycyrrhiza Glabra) also known as sweetwood, is the genus Glycyrrhiza, belonging to the family Fabaceae, native to the Mediterranean and certain areas of Asia.
The herb has been used in traditional medicine to treat skin diseases, coughs, constipation, bronchitis, inflammation, arthritis, etc.
Licochalcone A (Lico A) isolated from the root of Xinjiang liquorice, exerted its anti-inflammatory activity on a non-infectious mouse model of asthma, through inhibition of the increase in T-helper type 2 cytokines and reduced serum levels of OVA-specific IgE and IgG(8).
ASHMI, the composition of aqueous extracts of Lingzhi (Ganoderma lucidum), Kushen (Sophora flavescens) and Gancao (Glycyrrhizauralensis), is effective on allergic asthma, through inhibition of production of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5 by murine memory Th2 cells and eotaxin-1 production by HLF-1 cells(9).
Other study in a murine model also suggested that ASHMI not only significantly reduce eosinophilic pulmonary inflammation, serum IgE levels, IL-4 and IL-13 levels, but also increase IFN-γ production in lung cell cultures in response to antigen stimulation(10).
Chamomile is also known as camomile, common name of many species daisy-like plants in the family Asteraceae.
The herb has been used in traditional medicine as antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory constituents and to treat menstrual cramps and sleep disorders, reduce cramping and spastic pain in the bowels, relieve excessive gas and bloating in the intestine, etc.
Water composition extract of a mixture of eight herbs (chamomile, saffron, anise, fennel, caraway, licorice, cardomom and black seed), showed to alleviate the symptoms of asthma, through inhibition of histamine released from chemically- and immunologically-induced cells(11).
Garlic (Allium sativum) is a species in the onion genus, belonging to family Amaryllidaceae, native to central Asia.
It has been used popularly in traditional and Chinese medicine in treating common cold and flu to the Plague, blood pressure cholesterol levels, natural antibiotic, etc.
Diallyl disulfide (DADS), a major organosulfur compound found in garlic, in an ovalbumin-induced model of allergic asthma and RAW264.7 cells, showed to inhibit the proinflammatory proteins, through up regulation of Nrf-2/HO-1 and down regulation of NF-κB pathways(12).
According to the study by Tarbiat Modares University, purified aged garlic extract exhibited the protective effect of asthma through a significant decrease in the hallmark criteria of allergic airway inflammation levels(13).
6. Grape seed extract
Grapefruit seed extract (GSE) is a liquid extracted from the seeds, pulp, and white membranes of grapefruit.
The herb has been used in traditional medicine as an anti bacterial, viral, fungal, parasites and to enhance immune system, protect against colds and flu and malignant disease.
Grape seed extract (GSPE) may alleviate the symptoms of asthma through its antioxidant activities.
According to the study of University of Ulsan College of Medicine, GSPE effectively suppressed inflammation in both acute and chronic mouse models of asthma, through reduced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), decreased inflammatory cells in the BAL fluid, reduced lung inflammation and decreased IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and eotaxin-1 expression(14) by downregulating the iNOS expression(15).
Some researchers suggested that GSE significantly ameliorated of the pathological changes of ovalbumin-induced asthma, through inhibition of altered the lung parenchyma pathology and inflammation in ovalbumin-induced murine asthma model(16).
Most important, even though application of some herbs mentioned above exerted a enormous effect in inhibition of asthma symptoms and asthma but most of the data on the health effects are based on human cells and animal models.
Therefore, further data collection on studies performed with human consumption over a long term and during the course of the disease will be necessary to complete the picture of possibilities of above herbal efficacy.
Additionally, while addressing the possible advantages of herbal intake researchers must also take into account of potential, risk such as, quality controls, dosages and dosage induced adverse effect of acute liver toxicity.
Where interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, 13 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha are pro inflammatory cytokines activated by immune response against infection caused by micro organisms.
Eotaxin-1 expression activated by IL-13 or TNF-α with function in directing inflammatory cells throug its receptors.
Nrf2/HO-1 is a protein with function to react as anti oxidative stress response.
Nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), a major mediator of inflammation, plays an important role in response to stress.
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Kyle J. Norton, Master of Nutrition
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it’s news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada – Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.
(1) Anti-asthmatic effects of Angelica dahurica against ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation via upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 by Lee MY1, Seo CS, Lee JA, Lee NH, Kim JH, Ha H, Zheng MS, Son JK, Shin HK.(PubMed)
(2) Danggui Buxue Tang attenuates eosinophil infiltration and airway hyperresponsiveness in asthmatic mice by Lin CC1, Liou CJ, Chiang CY, Huang WY, Huang WC.(PubMed)
(3) Antioxidant and nitric oxide inhibition activities of Thai medicinal plants by Makchuchit S1, Itharat A, Tewtrakul S.(PubMed)
(4) A novel anti-inflammatory role for ginkgolide B in asthma via inhibition of the ERK/MAPK signaling pathway by Chu X1, Ci X, He J, Wei M, Yang X, Cao Q, Li H, Guan S, Deng Y, Pang D, Deng X.(PubMed)
(5) Summative interaction between astaxanthin, Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761) and vitamin C in suppression of respiratory inflammation: a comparison with ibuprofen by Haines DD1, Varga B, Bak I, Juhasz B, Mahmoud FF, Kalantari H, Gesztelyi R, Lekli I, Czompa A, Tosaki A(PubMed)
(6) [Studies on the effect of Ginkgo biloba extracts on NF-kappaB pathway].[Article in Chinese] by Li GH1, Lei XX, Yi YM, Xu BL, Wang HP, Du J.(PubMed)
(7) Effects of Ginkgo biloba on airway histology in a mouse model of chronic asthma by Babayigit A1, Olmez D, Karaman O, Ozogul C, Yilmaz O, Kivcak B, Erbil G, Uzuner N.(PubMed)
(8) Attenuation of allergic airway inflammation in a murine model of asthma by Licochalcone A by Chu X1, Jiang L, Wei M, Yang X, Guan M, Xie X, Wei J, Liu D, Wang D.(PubMed)
(9) Constituents of the anti-asthma herbal formula ASHMI(TM) synergistically inhibit IL-4 and IL-5 secretion by murine Th2 memory cells, and eotaxin by human lung fibroblasts in vitro by Jayaprakasam B1, Yang N, Wen MC, Wang R, Goldfarb J, Sampson H, Li XM.(PubMed)
(10) Glycyrrhiza uralensis flavonoids present in anti-asthma formula, ASHMI™, inhibit memory Th2 responses in vitro and in vivo by Yang N1, Patil S, Zhuge J, Wen MC, Bolleddula J, Doddaga S, Goldfarb J, Sampson HA, Li XM.(PubMed)
(11) The effect of a herbal water-extract on histamine release from mast cells and on allergic asthma by Haggag EG1, Abou-Moustafa MA, Boucher W, Theoharides TC.(PubMed)
(12) Diallyl-disulfide, an organosulfur compound of garlic, attenuates airway inflammation via activation of the Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway and NF-kappaB suppression by Shin IS1, Hong J, Jeon CM, Shin NR, Kwon OK, Kim HS, Kim JC, Oh SR, Ahn KS.(PubMed)
(13) Purified aged garlic extract modulates allergic airway inflammation in BALB/c mice by Zare A1, Farzaneh P, Pourpak Z, Zahedi F, Moin M, Shahabi S, Hassan ZM.(PubMed)
(14) Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract attenuates allergic inflammation in murine models of asthma by Lee T1, Kwon HS, Bang BR, Lee YS, Park MY, Moon KA, Kim TB, Lee KY, Moon HB, Cho YS.(PubMed)
(15) Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract attenuates airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in a murine model of asthma by downregulating inducible nitric oxide synthase by Zhou DY1, Du Q, Li RR, Huang M, Zhang Q, Wei GZ.(PubMed)
(16) Grape seed extract attenuates lung parenchyma pathology in ovalbumin-induced mouse asthma model: an ultrastructural study by Mahmoud YI.(PubMed)