Two bacteria can be better than one
In some cases, injecting tumors with specific bacteria can help eradicate the tumors by stimulating inflammation and triggering an antitumor immune response. A classic example of this is injection of bladder cancer with bacillus Calmette-Guérin, but more recent approaches have used bacteria such as Clostridium and Salmonella species. Building on the idea of antitumor bacterial therapy, Zheng et al. engineered a weakened strain of Salmonella typhimurium to produce the flagellin B protein from another bacterium, Vibrio vulnificus. The engineered bacteria induced an effective antitumor immune response, successfully treating tumors in several different mouse models with no evidence of toxicity.