Decades ago – before I was a fund manager – I was the resident expert on tax avoidance working for the Australian Treasury. That was where I started to hone the accounting skills sometimes shown on this blog.
I very rarely do anything in tax – but now I think it is time.
The New York Times has published a story (including extracts) about Donald Trump’s tax returns over two decades ago. The money-quote is this:
Donald J. Trump declared a $916 million loss on his 1995 income tax returns, a tax deduction so substantial it could have allowed him to legally avoid paying any federal income taxes for up to 18 years…
According to the New York Times the losses came
… through mismanagement of three Atlantic City casinos, his ill-fated foray into the airline business and his ill-timed purchase of the Plaza Hotel in Manhattan.
There is an issue here.
Donald Trump did not repay all the debt associated with those investments.
After all if the debt is forgiven it is not Donald Trump’s loss. The loss is borne by the person who lent Donald money and did not get it back.
That – clearly stated by example – is why most income tax systems assess debt forgiveness as income.
Okay – I do not know whether Donald Trump had the wherewithal in 1995 to bear $916 million of losses personally. But I doubt it. (If he did his financial career is different from what is popularly accepted.)
So the alternative is the debt was forgiven in some way. But then the story the New York Times is running is wrong – because the $916 million of losses would not have survived the debt forgiveness and hence would have wiped out his NOLs and thus he would not be allowed to shelter his income for the next 18 years.
Unless that is there is an avoidance scheme the New York Times has not worked out. Those schemes go by the name of “debt parking”.
Here is how debt parking works. Suppose the debtor (in this case The Donald) is going to get his debt cancelled for (say) 1c in the dollar. When he gets the debt wiped out the debtor (ie The Donald) will have to report assessable income equal to the debt wiped out (in this case 99 percent of $916 million).
The alternative though is for the debtor to set up a dummy party. The dummy party might be his wife or children or some company or trust set up by them or more likely some completely opaque offshore trust.
And that dummy party goes and buys the debt for say 1.1 cents in the dollar. Then they just sit there.
They don’t force the debtor (ie The Donald) to repay. They don’t make a profit or loss on the debt. And because the debtor never has his debt forgiven he never gets the assessment on debt forgiveness and he gets to keep his NOLs even though the losses did not come out of his pocket.
Every tax system worth its salt has some rules on “effective debt forgiveness” to prevent debt parking. And – from my experience which is now over twenty years old – none of them work entirely.
Now if Donald really has all those tax losses its pretty clear that the debt must be parked somewhere.
There is a vehicle out there (say an offshore trust or other undisclosed related party effectively controlled by Donald Trump) – which owns over $900 million in debt and is not bothering to collect it.
I do not have the time or energy to find that vehicle. But it is there. Now that this blog has gone public journalists are going to look for it.
There is a Pulitzer prize for whoever finds it. Just give me a nod at the acceptance ceremony.