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Mystery Solar Particle Mutating Matter On Earth

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Solar eruption December 31, 2012

Credit: NASA

 

When researchers reported in 2010 an unusual linkage between solar flares and the inner life of radioactive elements on Earth, it touched off a scientific detective investigation that could end up protecting the lives of space-walking astronauts and maybe rewriting some of the assumptions of physics. Since then further research released in December 2012 by Air Force and University investigators has supported the link between solar flares and earth elements, but has yet to explain the process.  

 

Peter Sturrock, professor emeritus of applied physics

Credit: L.A. Cicero

 

It’s a mystery that presented itself unexpectedly: The radioactive decay of some elements sitting quietly in laboratories on Earth seemed to be influenced by activities inside the sun, 93 million miles away.

 

Is this possible?

 

Researchers from Stanford and Purdue University believe it is. But their explanation of how it happens opens the door to yet another mystery.

 

There is even an outside chance that this unexpected effect is brought about by a previously unknown particle emitted by the sun. “That would be truly remarkable,” said Peter Sturrock, Stanford professor emeritus of applied physics and an expert on the inner workings of the sun.

 

 

The story begins, in a sense, in classrooms around the world, where students are taught that the rate of decay of a specific radioactive material is a constant. This concept is relied upon, for example, when anthropologists use carbon-14 to date ancient artifacts and when doctors determine the proper dose of radioactivity to treat a cancer patient.

 

Random numbers

 

But that assumption was challenged in an unexpected way by a group of researchers from Purdue University who at the time were more interested in random numbers than nuclear decay. (Scientists use long strings of random numbers for a variety of calculations, but they are difficult to produce, since the process used to produce the numbers has an influence on the outcome.)

 

Ephraim Fischbach, a physics professor at Purdue, was looking into the rate of radioactive decay of several isotopes as a possible source of random numbers generated without any human input. (A lump of radioactive cesium-137, for example, may decay at a steady rate overall, but individual atoms within the lump will decay in an unpredictable, random pattern. Thus the timing of the random ticks of a Geiger counter placed near the cesium might be used to generate random numbers.)

 

As the researchers pored through published data on specific isotopes, they found disagreement in the measured decay rates – odd for supposed physical constants.

 

Checking data collected at Brookhaven National Laboratory on Long Island and the Federal Physical and Technical Institute in Germany, they came across something even more surprising: long-term observation of the decay rate of silicon-32 and radium-226 seemed to show a small seasonal variation. The decay rate was ever so slightly faster in winter than in summer.

 

Was this fluctuation real, or was it merely a glitch in the equipment used to measure the decay, induced by the change of seasons, with the accompanying changes in temperature and humidity?

 

“Everyone thought it must be due to experimental mistakes, because we’re all brought up to believe that decay rates are constant,” Sturrock said.

 

The sun speaks

 

On Dec 13, 2006, the sun itself provided a crucial clue, when a solar flare sent a stream of particles and radiation toward Earth. Purdue nuclear engineer Jere Jenkins, while measuring the decay rate of manganese-54, a short-lived isotope used in medical diagnostics, noticed that the rate dropped slightly during the flare, a decrease that started about a day and a half before the flare.

 

If this apparent relationship between flares and decay rates proves true, it could lead to a method of predicting solar flares prior to their occurrence, which could help prevent damage to satellites and electric grids, as well as save the lives of astronauts in space.

 

The decay-rate aberrations that Jenkins noticed occurred during the middle of the night in Indiana – meaning that something produced by the sun had traveled all the way through the Earth to reach Jenkins’ detectors. What could the flare send forth that could have such an effect?

 

Jenkins and Fischbach guessed that the culprits in this bit of decay-rate mischief were probably solar neutrinos, the almost weightless particles famous for flying at almost the speed of light through the physical world – humans, rocks, oceans or planets – with virtually no interaction with anything.

 

Then, in a series of papers published in Astroparticle Physics, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research and Space Science Reviews, Jenkins, Fischbach and their colleagues showed that the observed variations in decay rates were highly unlikely to have come from environmental influences on the detection systems.

 

Reason for suspicion

 

Their findings strengthened the argument that the strange swings in decay rates were caused by neutrinos from the sun. The swings seemed to be in synch with the Earth’s elliptical orbit, with the decay rates oscillating as the Earth came closer to the sun (where it would be exposed to more neutrinos) and then moving away.

 

So there was good reason to suspect the sun, but could it be proved?

 

Enter Peter Sturrock, Stanford professor emeritus of applied physics and an expert on the inner workings of the sun. While on a visit to the National Solar Observatory in Arizona, Sturrock was handed copies of the scientific journal articles written by the Purdue researchers.

 

Sturrock knew from long experience that the intensity of the barrage of neutrinos the sun continuously sends racing toward Earth varies on a regular basis as the sun itself revolves and shows a different face, like a slower version of the revolving light on a police car. His advice to Purdue: Look for evidence that the changes in radioactive decay on Earth vary with the rotation of the sun. “That’s what I suggested. And that’s what we have done.”

 

A surprise

 

Going back to take another look at the decay data from the Brookhaven lab, the researchers found a recurring pattern of 33 days. It was a bit of a surprise, given that most solar observations show a pattern of about 28 days – the rotation rate of the surface of the sun.

 

 

 

The explanation? The core of the sun – where nuclear reactions produce neutrinos – apparently spins more slowly than the surface we see. “It may seem counter-intuitive, but it looks as if the core rotates more slowly than the rest of the sun,” Sturrock said.

 

All of the evidence points toward a conclusion that the sun is “communicating” with radioactive isotopes on Earth, said Fischbach.

 

But there’s one rather large question left unanswered. No one knows how neutrinos could interact with radioactive materials to change their rate of decay.

 

“It doesn’t make sense according to conventional ideas,” Fischbach said. Jenkins whimsically added, “What we’re suggesting is that something that doesn’t really interact with anything is changing something that can’t be changed.”

 

“It’s an effect that no one yet understands,” agreed Sturrock. “Theorists are starting to say, ‘What’s going on?’ But that’s what the evidence points to. It’s a challenge for the physicists and a challenge for the solar people too.”

 

If the mystery particle is not a neutrino, “It would have to be something we don’t know about, an unknown particle that is also emitted by the sun and has this effect, and that would be even more remarkable,” Sturrock said.

 

Contacts and sources:

Chantal Jolagh,

Stanford University

U.S. Air Force

Purdue University

Wittenberg University

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    Question   Razz  Sad   Evil  Exclaim  Smile  Redface  Biggrin  Surprised  Eek   Confused   Cool  LOL   Mad   Twisted  Rolleyes   Wink  Idea  Arrow  Neutral  Cry   Mr. Green

    Total 12 comments
    • Anonymous

      If you find this unexpected, you ain’t seen nothing yet. Earth, the worst planet in the universe, has gone mainstream, as of Dec. 21, 2012. The details will now play out. You might say that, we have a bit of catching up to do.

    • apd

      How is Earth ,Terra or whatever the worst planet in the universe? If it wasn’t for the “worst planet in the universe” sustaining your bitter life and ignorant views you’d not be here no typing crap on the internet. Maybe if you took your tinfoil hat off and explored the good of the planet maybe you’d change your skewed views.

      You are half right though its not the earth it is it’s resource raping lodgers that are the worst in the universe.

    • Anonymous

      Well, heat makes water boil. Cold makes metal crack. Sunlight yellows paper. It makes total sense to me the sun could blow out some form of radiation that could affect other natural elements here on the planet. You can see evolution in plants and animals in couple generations if you change their conditions. Why could this not be true?

    • FNPmitchreturns

      Silly scientists, of course there are minute changes to rates of decay. Think of the link between energy, magnetic fields and charge particles. For one not to realize that for every force (energy) there is a reaction….. :idea:

    • Anonymous

      So does this mean we could have real X-Men?

      • Tedjusant

        @Anonymous,
        Only if you are a real EX – WOMAN?

    • OneNineSixSix Ajai Dev Malik

      Okay we intercepted a strange message from the ether…. Comrades….

      that Captain Solarix has gone back to work, and left comments for you here….

      http://space.brevardtimes.com/2012/10/suns-coronal-mass-ejection-to-reach.html

      with specific instructions for not scaring yourself…..

      even if you see some CME’s at times….. every star uses the tactics same at times to calm the earth on the planks…..

      Nighty Night……

    • BrianFraser

      I did experiments that altered the radioactive decay rates of thorium and uranium. I used actual radioactive material and a real Geiger counter. You can view the equipment and the decay curves at:

      http://scripturalphysics.org/qm/adven.html

    • Tedjusant

      DATE-09/01/2013. WEDNESDAY, 12.58 pm.
      PLEASE ,PLEASE, I APPLOY YOU, LOOK AT THE PICTURE OF THE SUN ABOVE , TILT YOUR HEAD TO THE LEFT do you see what i see ,
      I SEE THE DEVIL RISING OUT OF THE SUN.
      OH YAHUSHUA COME TO EARTH NOW AND SET THE GOOD PEOPLE FREE, I PRAY OF YOU
      YAHUSHUA FORGIVES THOSE THAT DO NOT HAVE THE KNOWLEDGE TO SEEK OR SEE THE TRUTH.

      • Confederate

        Yeah and I bet you see pink elephants dancing around your padded room!

        • Tedjusant

          So you mean that i have got to wait until you have finished useing the room fiirst, :grin:

    • Anonymous

      Scientists milk money out of the system because no one knows any better to challenge them. They have degrees, write about things they simply perceive, and it’s all nonsense. What isn’t nonsense is the money they get paid for wasting their time and ours. That should stop.
      Leslie Davis, President
      http://www.EarthProtector.org

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