Profile image
By Alton Parrish (Reporter)
Contributor profile | More stories
Story Views

Now:
Last Hour:
Last 24 Hours:
Total:

Two Planets Found Orbiting Fast Moving Kapteyn’s Star Near Our Sun And One Is “Ripe For Life”

Wednesday, June 4, 2014 13:52
% of readers think this story is Fact. Add your two cents.

(Before It's News)

An international team of scientists, led by astronomers at Queen Mary University of London, report of two new planets orbiting Kapteyn’s star, one of the oldest stars found near the Sun. One of the newly-discovered planets could be ripe for life as it orbits at the right distance to the star to allow liquid water on its surface. The team report their findings in a letter to the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

 

Discovered at the end of the 19th century and named after the Dutch astronomer who discovered it (Jacobus Kapteyn), Kapteyn’s star is the second fastest moving star in the sky and belongs to the galactic halo, an extended cloud of stars orbiting our galaxy. With a third of the mass of the sun, this red dwarf star can be seen in the southern constellation of Pictor with an amateur telescope.

 

The astronomers used new data from the HARPS spectrometer at the ESO La Silla observatory in Chile to measure tiny periodic changes in the motion of the star. Using the Doppler Effect, which shifts the star’s light spectrum depending on its velocity, the scientists can work out some properties of these planets, such as their masses and periods of orbit.

 

 An artist’s impression of the red dwarf Kapteyn’s star superimposed on a diagram showing its ejection from a nearby dwarf galaxy.  The study also combined data from two more high-precision spectrometers to secure the detection

Credit: HIRES at Keck Observatory and PFS at Magellan/Las Campanas Observatory.

 

“We were surprised to find planets orbiting Kapteyn’s star. Previous data showed some moderate excess of variability, so we were looking for very short period planets when the new signals showed up loud and clear,” explains lead author Dr Guillem Anglada-Escude, from QMUL’s School of Physics and Astronomy.

 

Based on the data collected, the planet Kapetyn b is at least five times as massive as the Earth and it orbits the star every 48 days. This means the planet is warm enough for liquid water to be present on its surface. The second planet, Kapteyn c is quite different: its year lasts for 121 days and astronomers think it’s too cold to support liquid water.

 

At the moment, only a few properties of the planets are known: approximate masses, orbital periods, and distances to the star. By measuring the atmosphere of these planets with next-generation instruments, scientists will try to find out whether they can bear water.

 

Typical planetary systems detected by NASA’s Kepler mission are hundreds of light years away. In contrast, Kapteyn’s star is the 25th nearest star to the sun and is only 13 light years away from Earth.

 

 

What makes this discovery different however, is the peculiar story of the star. Kapteyn’s star was born in a dwarf galaxy absorbed and disrupted by the early Milky Way. This galactic disruption event put the star in its fast halo orbit. The likely remnant core of the original dwarf galaxy is Omega Centauri, an enigmatic globular cluster 16, 000 light years from earth which contains hundreds of thousands of similarly old suns. This sets the most likely age of the planets at 11.5 billion years; which is 2.5 times older than Earth and ‘only’ 2 billion years younger than the universe itself (around 13.7 billion years).

 

Dr Anglada-Escude adds: “It does make you wonder what kind of life could have evolved on those planets over such a long time.”

 

Professor Richard Nelson, Head of the Astronomy Unit at QMUL, who didn’t participate in the research, commented: “This discovery is very exciting. It suggests that many potentially habitable worlds will be found in the next years around nearby stars by ground-based and space-based observatories, such as PLATO. Until we have detected a larger number of them, the properties and possible habitability of the near-most planetary systems will remain mysterious.”

 

 

 

Contacts and sources:

Neha Okhandiar

Queen Mary University of London

Royal Astronomical Society



Source:

Report abuse

Comments

Your Comments
Question   Razz  Sad   Evil  Exclaim  Smile  Redface  Biggrin  Surprised  Eek   Confused   Cool  LOL   Mad   Twisted  Rolleyes   Wink  Idea  Arrow  Neutral  Cry   Mr. Green

Total 1 comment
  • Beforeitscrap

    The only problem is they also think its tide locked with its star, meaning no life… or at least not advanced.

Top Stories
Recent Stories
 

Featured

 

Top Global

 

Top Alternative

 

Register

Newsletter

Email this story
Email this story

If you really want to ban this commenter, please write down the reason:

If you really want to disable all recommended stories, click on OK button. After that, you will be redirect to your options page.