The UN says IS forces have abducted thousands of civilians in the Mosul area to use as “human shields” near strategic sites. They are also said to have murdered some 232 people including former members of Iraqi security forces and people who refused to obey their orders.
Amnesty International warns that use of white phosphorus munitions by Iraqi or coalition forces may endanger civilians. (The U.S. used such munitions in the second battle for Fallujah.)
Toxic clouds from burning sulfur and oil wells set ablaze by IS have sickened more than a thousand people and created an environmental catastrophe.