Eight major studies o
Eight major studies of identical twins in Australia, the U.S., and Scandinavia during the last two decades all arrive at the same conclusion: gays were not born that way.
“At best genetics is a minor factor,” says Dr. Neil Whitehead, PhD. Whitehead worked for the New Zealand government as a scientific researcher for 24 years, then spent four years working for the United Nations and International Atomic Energy Agency. Most recently, he serves as a consultant to Japanese universities about the effects of radiation exposure. His PhD is in biochemistry and statistics.
Identical twins have the same genes or DNA. They are nurtured in equal prenatal conditions. If homosexuality is caused by genetics or prenatal conditions and one twin is gay, the co-twin should also be gay.
“Because they have identical DNA, it ought to be 100%,” Dr. Whitehead notes. But the studies reveal something else. “If an identical twin has same-sex attraction the chances the co-twin has it are only about 11% for men and 14% for women.”
Because identical twins are always genetically identical, homosexuality cannot be genetically dictated. “No-one is born gay,” he notes. “The predominant things that create homosexuality in one identical twin and not in the other have to be post-birth factors.”
The following article appears originally at:
The following is a summary of 20 years of scientific research into homosexuality by Dr. N.E. Whitehead covering more than 10,000 scientific papers and publications from all sides of the debate. The research is non-selective, orthodox, and objective. These conclusions are fully backed up in his book, My Genes Made Me Do It! – a Scientific Look at Sexual Orientation
(published USA, 1999, latest edition August 2010).*
IS THERE A GAY GENE?
Large studies now show that.
About half of those with exclusive SSA** move towards heterosexuality over a lifetime. Put another way, 3% of the practicing heterosexual population (both men and women) claim to have once been either bisexual or homosexual.
These changes are not therapeutically induced, but happen “naturally” in life, some very quickly.
Most changes in sexual orientation are towards exclusive heterosexuality.
Numbers of people who have changed towards exclusive OSA*** are greater than current numbers of bisexuals and exclusive SSA people combined. In other words, “Ex-gays outnumber actual gays.” Kinnish, K.K., Strassberg, D.S. and Turner, C.W. (2005) Sex Differences in the flexibility of Sexual Orientation: A Multidimensional Retrospective Assessment; Archives of Sexual Behavior, 34, 175-183.
Exclusive OSA*** is 17 times as stable as exclusive SSA for men, and 30 times as stable as exclusive SSA for women. (Women move about more in their sexual orientation than men.)
Most teenagers will change from SSA. In fact, in the 16 to 17 year age group, 98% will move from homosexuality and bisexuality towards heterosexuality.
16 year olds saying they are SSA or Bi-attracted are 25 times more likely to say they are opposite sex attracted at the age of 17 than those with a heterosexual orientation are likely to identify themselves as bi-sexual or homosexual.
16-year olds who claim they are opposite sex attracted will overwhelmingly remain that way. Savin-Williams, R.C. and Ream, G.L., (2007) Prevalence and Stability of Sexual Orientation Components During Adolescence and Young Adulthood; Archives of Sexual Behavior 36, 385-394.
A scan of the whole genome has not found any homosexual genes, unlike the case for schizophrenia (which has still only identified 4 genes linked to 3%of schizophrenia.)
From an understanding of gene structure and function there are no plausible means by which genes could dictate SSA (or other behaviors) in a person.
So far, genetically dictated behaviors of the “one-gene-one-trait” variety have been found only in very simple organisms. Generally, geneticists agree that many genes (from at least five to many hundreds) contribute to any particular human behavior.
Any genetic influence is believed to be weak and indirect.
No genetically determined human behavior has yet been found. The most closely genetically-related behavior yet discovered (mono-amine oxidase deficiency leading to aggression) has shown itself remarkably responsive to counseling.
A genetically dominated SSA caused by a cluster of genes could not suddenly appear and disappear in families, as it does. It would persist through every generation for many generations. It is genetically implausible that many “heterosexual” genes could switch off at the same time.
The human race shares most of its genes—something between 99.7%and 99.9%. That means all ethnic groups will have most of them. This has three implications.
If homosexuality is genetically dictated, homosexual practices will be identical or very similar in all cultures. But the enormous range and diversity of homosexual practice and customs in different cultures (and within cultures) argues against this.There would be a similar percentage of homosexuality in all cultures. But homosexuality has been unknown in some cultures and mandatory in others.Changes in homosexual practice and behavior in different cultures would take place very slowly, over many centuries. But this is not what history shows. The decline of whole models (culturally specific expressions) of homosexuality within a century; the relatively sudden (in genetic terms) emergence of the present Western model over a couple of centuries; and abrupt changes of practice within an ethnic group, even over a single generation, are not consistent with anything genetic. It is even less so the swiftly changing sexual practices within the current Western model.The occurrence of SSA in the population is too frequent to be caused by a faulty pre-natal developmental process, so it is not innate in that sense either. This includes epigenetic processes, i.e. influences of the environment on genetic expression.If SSA were genetically determined, and led to same-sex contact only it would have bred itself out of the population in only several generations. It would not exist today.First attractions (both SSA and OSA) occur on average at age 10 and are rarely “earliest memories” meaning attraction is mostly socially induced. The spread of ages of first attraction is very large, very different from the small spread of ages for the genetically pre-programmed event, puberty.
MY GENES MADE ME DO IT! A Scientific Look at Sexual Orientation
- By Dr. Neil Whitehead (AMAZON)
The environment has effects on major sexual dimorphism from birth to puberty and beyond.
About 90% of Western “intersex” children (those born with ambiguous genitalia) choose to remain in their gender of upbringing when puberty reveals their true genetic gender and surgical interventions are offered. Often, this choice has been made in the face of very contrary physical and hormonal characteristics. It argues for predominant environmental influences on the formation of gender orientation and behavior.
Divorce of parents (as judged from Danish gay marriage backgrounds) doubles the risk of later homosexuality in children.
The stages of psycho-social development toward adult heterosexuality are well defined and accepted by developmental psychologists, and are so obviously learned that heterosexuality is clearly not genetically mandated. In surveys of adult homosexuals many show deficits in several of these developmental stages—suggesting that homosexuality is cultural and environmental rather than genetic.
There is a much higher occurrence of homosexuality among those who have been raised in large cities, rather than in rural areas, arguing that the environment is much more powerful than genes in the development of homosexuality.
A scientific/sociological tool, Path Analysis, has been argued to show that there is no social or familial basis to homosexuality, but rather a biological one. However, social and family paths leading to homosexuality were collectively significant, though individual paths were not. In contrast genetic paths were collectively insignificant.
Causes of SSA**
*My Genes Made me do it! is constantly being revised and updated.
** SSA is shorthand for Same Sex Attraction.
***OSA is shorthand for Opposite Sex Attraction.
MY GENES MADE ME DO IT! A Scientific Look at Sexual Orientation
- By Dr. Neil Whitehead (AMAZON)
All documentation quoted verbatim from Dr. N.E. Whitehead with permission.
(This disclaimer appears on the originating website HERE)
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