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Runes, also known as the runic alphabets, are a group of alphabets that are closely related. The alphabets originated in the Germanic tongue of Scandinavia and the British Isles, and were used until shortly after Christianization of these areas. There are three main variants of runes. In Scandinavia, the “Futhark” rune alphabet is the most common, with the name derived from the first six letters of the alphabet. The Futhark alphabet is divided into Elder Futhark (150-800 AD) and Younger Futhark (800-1100 AD). The Younger Futhark is further divided into sub-categories – long-branch, short-twig, and staveless runes, as well as Marcomannic, Medieval, and Dalecarlian runes. An Anglo-Saxon variant known as “Futhorc” was used between 400-1100 AD. While still named after the first six letters of the alphabet, the influence of the Old English language changed the pronunciation of those letters. The earliest known runic inscriptions were created around 150A.D As Christianity spread to Central Europe (700 A.D.) and Scandinavia (1100 A.D.), runes were replaced by the Latin alphabet. However, the use of runes continued for certain purposes. In fact, rural Sweden relied on runes into the 20th century. Runes were most commonly carved into wood, although they were also carved … Continue reading Runes

The post Runes appeared first on Richard Cassaro.

Richard Cassaro is a journalist, speaker and author of “Written In Stone: Decoding The Secret Masonic Religion Hidden In Gothic Cathedrals And World Architecture.” The book uncovers a lost Wisdom Tradition that was practiced globally in antiquity, found memorialized in pyramids, Triptychs, and identical images worldwide. The central tenets of this tradition have been perpetuated in Western Secret Societies. The most visible of these is the so-called “Masonic Fraternity,” an age-old chivalric Order whose ranks have included Europe’s Gothic cathedral builders and America’s Founding Fathers. Richard has two websites: and


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