As one of the earliest recorded medicinal plants in history, the herb Aloe Vera has been utilized by many cultures. With such a long history behind this miraculous plant, there is no question as to why it is a vital ingredient in Euca-Leaf Soothing Pain Relief Spray. Aloe Vera has been a treasured healing agent since ancient times and now has a most important role in our all-natural pain-alleviating blend.
The famous “Egyptian Book Of Medicine” which dates back to 1500 BC, is first to reveal the medicinal uses of the Aloe Vera plant. By 4000 BC illustrations of the herb begin appearing on the temple walls of the pharaohs. The ancient Egyptians named this miraculous healer “The Plant Of Immortality.” Since this long ago discovery it has been a treasured cure across many nations and millennia. Aloe Vera Is today one of the most studied and valued herbs of our time.
Originating in North Africa, Aloe Vera was used by hunters as a natural deodorant long before the Egyptians recorded their discovery of its many healing qualities. Not only was it used to fight parasites, infection, and skin disease, but also played part in embalming. The Egyptian queens claimed “The Plant Of Immortality” to be the source of their beauty. Through Africa, India, China, Mexico, The Roman Empire and more, Aloe Vera has treated bites, burns, infections, inflammation and signs of aging. The year 1944, In a devastated Japan, it was used on the skin of those exposed to the “A” bomb. The herb gifted the suffering with accelerated healing and reduced the appearance of all scarring. Even Alexander the Great and Christopher Columbus Employed this healing plant in treating the wounds of their soldiers!
Considered by ancient physicians to be a blessing to mankind, Aloe Vera has traveled the earth through the years proving its amazing qualities. This herb has a vital role in our one of a kind blend. Euca-Leaf Pain Relieving Spray is made with only the purest of ingredients. While relaxing muscles and reducing inflammation, it promotes healthy blood flow and healing. With help from “The Plant Of Immortality,” we present you a unique, powerful product to aid in the relief of your pain.
Known as “the plant of immortality” by the Ancient Egyptians, and treasured by numerous subsequent cultures, aloe vera it still known today for its many health benefits. For millennia it has been used to treat more than 50 medical conditions, from obesity to burns, dermatitis, ulcers, asthma, diabetes, acne, and even leprosy.
The Amazing Properties of Aloe Vera
Aloe Vera is approximately 95% water, but the other 5% is made up of extremely high levels of healthy enzymes. The very special plant has more than 200 bioactive compounds such as minerals, enzymes, vitamins, amino acids, and polysaccharides, which all improve nutrient absorption in the body. It is also rich in calcium, iron, zinc, magnesium, copper, potassium, and manganese. It boasts anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties which help detoxify the body and support the immune system. It also contains the vitamin B12, which is normally only found in animal based foods and it is important in the creation of new red blood cells, making it invaluable to vegetarians. It is native to Africa and parts of the Middle East, but can be grown in any home, making it accessible to anyone. It once was, and still remains, one of the world’s most popular and widely used remedies.
The gel-like substance inside the aloe vera leaf has extensive health properties ( CC by SA 2.0 )
A Millennia-Old Treatment
The earliest known use of the aloe vera plant dates back 6,000 years to the Ancient Egyptians. The plant was known to hold the secrets to beauty, health, and immortality, hence it was known as “the plant of immortality.” Both Cleopatra and Nefertiti were known to use and value the juice of the plant as part of their daily beauty routines. Even the dead were embalmed with aloe vera due to its anti-bacterial and anti-fungal properties. This was important because the Ancient Egyptians believed that stopping the physical decomposition process would lead to eternal life. Along with embalming the dead, aloe would be given as a gift to the deceased pharaohs at their funeral ceremonies. A man’s wealth and esteem for the pharaoh were shown by the amount of aloe, in pounds, that he brought as an offering.
Deceased pharaohs were brought aloe vera as an offering ( CC by SA 2.0 )
Ancient Records Reveal Wide-Ranging Uses of Aloe
Found in Thebes in 1858, the “papyrus of Eber” from 1,550 BCE, the time of Amen-Hotep, document the anti-inflammatory and pain soothing properties of the plant. The Mahometans of Egypt thought of aloe vera as a religious symbol. They believed that the holy symbol of the plant hanging in a doorway would protect them from slander and evil influences. The Egyptians also used the plant in the production of papyrus and as a treatment for tuberculosis. Similarly, documentation about aloe vera was found on clay boards from Nippur which date back to 2,200 BCE. At this time, the Ancient Mesopotamians were using the plant as a body detoxifier, as illness was seen as demonic possession and the divine plant used its natural powers to expel the demons.
The Ebers Papyrus (c. 1550 BC) from Ancient Egypt refers to the anti-inflammatory and pain soothing properties of the plant ( CC by SA 3.0 )
Cart Loads of Aloe for the Battlefield
In the time of Alexander the Great, aloe was also being used as a medicinal treatment. It has been documented that Alexander used aloe juice to heal the wounds of his warriors on the battlefield. He even went as far as having transportable carts of the plant in order to have fresh supplies at the ready during his battle campaigns. It is said that Aristotle convinced Alexander to capture the Island Socotra specifically to gain possession of the aloe groves therein.
Aloe vera on the island of Socotra ( Aloes.wz.cz)
Aloe in Ancient Rome
During the reign of Nero, in the 1 st century AD, the physician and naturalist Dioscorides journeyed with the Roman armies in search of new methods of healing. He wrote several books, the first of which was “De Materia Medica” in 41-68 AD, teaching pharmaceutics, which included prescriptions and treatments for numerous illnesses. In a chapter on plant therapy, he describes aloe vera as one of his favourite healing plants. He recommends that the juice of the plant be used for numerous physical disorders such as the treatment of wounds, gastrointestinal discomfort, gingivitis, arthralgia, skin irritation, sunburn, acne, hair loss, and many more. Pliny the Elder, a contemporary physician, confirmed in his “Natural History, the discoveries of Dioscorides, but included the healing of leprosy sores and anti-perspirant to the list of aloe’s uses.
Aloe as a ‘Method of Harmony’ in Ancient China
In Chinese culture aloe was also seen as an important medical ingredient since the times of Marco Polo’s expeditions. In China, the dried juice of the aloe vera plant is know as “Lu-hui,” meaning “black deposit,” and was first mentioned in the 11 th century. The treatment book of Shi-Shen describes the plant as the “Method of Harmony,” as such the plant played a major role in Chinese everyday life. In Japan, it was known as “the royal plant,” and the juice was consumed as an elixir or rubbed on the wounds of the samurai to heal them, in the same way as Alexander the Great.
Aloe was Cultivated by Spanish Monks
In the 16 th century, Spanish Jewish monks harvested aloe and were known to spread the plant to areas in which it had not been previously cultivated. These monks came to be renown as well educated phytologists and healers. At the same time, Christopher Columbus was known to have aloe vera growing in potted plants on his ships, using the gel from the plant to heal the wounds of his mercenaries. In fact, Christopher Columbus once said, “Four vegetables are indispensable for the well being of man: Wheat, the grape, the olive, and aloe. The first nourishes, the second raises the spirit, the third brings him harmony, and the fourth cures him.” Meanwhile, in the new world, the Native tribes also became familiar with the aloe vera plant. It became one of the 16 holy plants which were worshipped by specific tribes. Diluted aloe juice could be applied to the skin as an insect repellent on humans or on wood and other valuable materials, this treatment of preservation, much like the Egyptians embalming their dead, worked extremely well.
An aloe vera plantation ( CC by SA 3.0 )
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Botany of aloe vera
Aloe vera is a spiky cactus like xerophytes. It is a clump forming perennial plant with thick fibrous root which produces large basal leaves, usually 12–16 per plant, weighing up to 1.5 kg when mature. The plant matures when it is about 4 years old and has a life span of about 12 years. The leaves are up to 0.5 m long and 8–10 cm across at the base, tapering to a point, with saw-like teeth along their margins. In a transverse section, the plant shows a slightly concave appearance on the adaxial surface and distinctly convex appearance on the lower abaxial surface (Grindlay and Reynolds 1986). The leaves are covered with thick cuticle, beneath which epidermis and mesophyll are present. Later is differentiated in upper chlorenchyma and lower parenchyma, as the rosette mature, successive leaves have fewer whitish spots and grey-greenish in colour (Eshun and He 2004).
The plant can be harvested every 6–8 weeks by removing 3–4 leaves per plant. Red, yellow, purple or pale stripped flowers are present most of the year growing in a long raceme at the top of the flower stalk which originates from the centre of the basal leaves. The flower stalk grows up to 1.5 m in height. The fruit is a triangular capsule containing numerous seeds. The plant is practically disease free, occasionally black spots may occur on upper surface because of fungal infection or soft rottening may damage whole plant. The causal organism for soft rottening is a bacterium. Frost is another enemy of aloe vera plant and it can not survive in frost conditions (Grindlay and Reynolds 1986). Smoking in field during frost nights is one measure practiced by farmers to protect the plantation from frost.
There are over 250 species of aloe grown world over. However, only two species are grown commercially i.e. Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) and Aloe aborescens. There are at least two other species that have medicinal properties namely Aloe perry baker and Aloe ferox. Most aloe vera plants are non toxic but a few are extremely poisonous containing a hemlock like substance (Atherton 1998). Aloe variegate is a dwarf species which is only a few centimeter in diameter and is a popular house plant.
Phytochemistry of aloe vera
There are as many as 200 different types of molecules in aloe vera (Davis 1997). The aloe vera leaf gel contains about 98% water (Bozzi et al. 2007). The total solid content of aloe vera gel is 0.66% and soluble solids are 0.56% with some seasonal fluctuation. On dry matter basis aloe gel consists of polysaccharides (55%), sugars (17%), minerals (16%), proteins (7%), lipids (4%) and phenolic compounds (1%) (Fig. 1). The aloe vera gel contains many vitamins including the important antioxidant vitamins A, C and E. Vitamin B1 (thiamine), niacin, Vitamin B2 (riboflavin), choline and folic acid are also present (Lawless and Allen 2000). Some authors also suggested the presence of vitamins B12 (cyanocobalamin) in trace amounts which is normally available in animal source (Coats 1979; Atherton 1998).
Chemical composition of aloe vera gel (on dry weight basis) (Luta and McAnalley 2005)
Carbohydrates are derived from mucilage layer of the plant under the rind, surrounding the inner parenchyma or gel. They comprise both mono and polysaccharides. The most important are the long chain polysaccharides, comprising glucose and mannose, known as the glucomannans [β (1, 4) – linked acetylated mannan]. Xylose, rhamnose, galactose and arabinose are also present in trace amounts along with lupeol (a triterpenoid), cholesterol, campesterol and β-sitosterol. Structural studies on aloe vera gel polysaccharides have shown that the gel is composed of at least four different partially acetylated glucomannans, being linear polymers with no branching and having 1,4 glycosidic linkages with glucose and mannose in the ratio of 1:2:8. The viscosity of gel reduces upon hydrolysis of these sugars. When taken orally some of the sugars bind to receptor sites that line the gut and form a barrier, possibly helping to prevent ‘leaky gut syndrome’(Atherton 1997).
Other reports suggest the presence of glucose and a polyuronide consisting of a high molecular weight glucose mannose polyose (Mr 2.75 × 105) and hexouronic acid (Gjestad 1971). Ovadova et al. (1975) reported the presence of uronic acid, which gives galacturonic acid and oligosaccharides upon fermentative hydrolysis. Meadows (1980) reported that at least six enzymes are present in the aloe vera gel including bradykinase, cellulase, carboxypeptidase, catalase, amylase and oxidase. The carboxypeptidase inactivates bradykinase at site of wound or cut in body and produces pain relieving and anti-inflammatory effect. During the inflammatory process, bradykinase produces pain associated with vasodilatation (Shelton 1991). The gel also contains glutothionperoxidase as well as several isozymes of superoxide dismutase. Wang (1993) reported that potassium and chloride concentration appeared to be excessive in aloe vera juice in comparison to most plant products whereas the sodium content was found lesser in quantity. Calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc, chromium and iron were also found in the aloe products. Magnesium lactate inhibits histidine decarboxylase and prevents the formation of histamine from the amino acid histidine (Shelton 1991). Histamine is released in many allergic reactions and causes intense itching and pain. The prevention of its formation may explain the anti-allergic effects of aloe vera gel.
Anthraquinones are the phenolic compounds present in the sap or yellow exudates of leaf or aloe vera latex. Aloe latex contains a series of glycosides known as anthraquinones, the most prominent being aloin A and aloin B (Tyler 1994). The bitter aloes (dried yellow exudates) consists of free anthraquinones and their derivatives i.e. barbloin-IO-(1151-anhydroglucosyl)-aloe-emodin-9-anthrone, isobarbloin, anthrone–C- glycosides and chromones. These compounds exerts a powerful purgative effects when ingested in large amounts but when low in concentration, they appear to aid absorption from the gut and are potent antimicrobial (Sims et al. 1971) and powerful analgesic agents. Isolation and structure determinations of these chromones from the aloe vera leaves were also studied and these compounds were identified to be 8-C-glycosyl-7-O methyl-(S) aloesol, isoaloeresin D and aloeresin E (Saccu et al. 2001).
Recently, a glycoprotein with anti-allergic properties, called alprogen was isolated from aloe gel. In addition, a novel anti-inflammatory compounds, C-glycosyl chromones, has also been isolated from aloe gel (Hutter and Salman 1996). Saponins are the soapy substances, form 3% of the gel and are general cleansers, having antiseptic properties (Hirat and Suga 1983). The sterols include comperterol, β- sitosterol and lupeol (Coats 1979). Salicylic acid is an aspirin like compound possessing pain relieving properties (Table 1). About 20 out of 22 amino acids and seven of the eight essential amino acids required by human body are also present in aloe vera gel. Major phytochemicals occurring in aloe vera pulp and exudate are summarized in Table 2. Aloe vera juice was evaluated for antioxidant potential and the study showed significant presence of antioxidant in aloe extracts. A 3 years old plant extract exhibits the strongest free radical scavenging activity of 72.19%, which is significantly higher than that of BHT having 70.52% and α-tocopherol with 65.65% (Hu et al. 2003). It is suggested that growth stage in aloe plant plays a vital role in the composition and antioxidant activity (Hu et al. 2003). Aloe vera juice also has antibacterial properties against Gram- positive bacteria (Alemdar and Agaoglu 2009). Anonymous (2008) reported antiviral and antifungal properties of aloe vera.
Novel components of aloe vera along with their health benefits
|Chemical component||Health benefits|
|Acemannan||Accelerate wound healing, modulate immune system, Antineoplastic and antiviral effects|
|Salicylic acid||Analgesic, anti-inflammatory|
Shelton (1991), Peng et al. (1991)
Summary of the phytochemicals of Aloe vera pulp and exudate
|Anthraquinones/anthrones||Aloe-emodin, aloetic-acid, anthranol, aloin A and B (or collectively known as barbaloin), isobarbaloin, emodin, ester of cinnamic acid|
|Carbohydrates||Pure mannan, acetylated mannan, acetylated glucomannan, glucogalactomannan, galactan, galactogalacturan, arabinogalactan, galactoglucoarabinomannan, pectic substance, xylan, cellulose|
|Chromones||8-C-glucosyl-(2′-O-cinnamoyl)-7-O-methylaloediol A, 8-C-glucosyl-(S)-aloesol, 8-C-glucosyl-7-O-methyl-(S)-aloesol, 8-C-glucosyl-7-O-methylaloediol, 8-C-glucosyl-noreugenin, isoaloeresin D, isorabaichromone, neoaloesin A|
|Enzymes||Alkaline phosphatase, amylase, carboxypeptidase, catalase, cyclooxidase, cyclooxygenase, lipase, oxidase, phosphoenol, pyruvate carboxylase, superoxide dismutase|
|Minerals||Calcium, chlorine, chromium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, phosphorous, sodium, zinc|
|Lipids and miscellaneous organic compounds||Arachidonic acid, γ-linolenic acid, steroids (campestrol, cholesterol, β-sitosterol), triglicerides, triterpenoid, gibberillin, lignins, potassium sorbate, salicylic acid, uric acid|
|Amino acids||Alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, histidine, hydroxyproline, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, threonine, tyrosine, valine|
|Proteins||Lectins, lectin-like substance|
|Saccharides||Mannose, glucose, L-rhamnose, aldopentose|
|Vitamins||B1, B2, B6, C, β-carotene, choline, folic acid, α-tocopherol|
Processing of aloe vera
Aloe vera gel derived from the leaf pulp of the plant has become a big industry worldwide due to its application in the food industry. It is utilized in functional foods especially for the preparation of health drinks with no laxative effects. It is also used in other food products including milk, ice cream, confectionery, etc. Aloe vera gel is also used as flavoring component and preservative in some foods (Christaki and Florou-Paneri 2010). Thus, a simple and efficient processing technique needs to be developed especially for the aloe beverage industry to improve product quality and safety by preserving the bioactive chemicals naturally present in the intact aloe vera leaf (Eshun and He 2004).
The production process of aloe vera juice involves crushing, grinding or pressing of the entire leaf of the aloe vera plant to produce a liquid, followed by various steps of filtrations and stabilization (preserving the biological integrity of active ingredient to exert the reported physiological effect upon ingestion or topical application). The resulting juice is then incorporated in or mixed with other preparations or agents to produce a pharmaceutical, cosmetic or food product. In food industry, aloe vera has been utilized as a source of functional food drinks and other beverages including tea. The amount of aloe vera that finds its application in pharmaceutical industry is also substantial as evident by availability of topical ointments, gel preparations, tablets and capsules.
Unfortunately, because of improper processing procedures many of these so called aloe products contain very little or virtually no active ingredients namely, mucopolysaccharides. In view of known wide spectrum of biological activities possessed by the leaves of aloe vera plant and its wide spread use, it has become imperative that the leaf must be processed with the aim of retaining essential bioactive components up to maximum possible limit or as much as contained in fresh leaf. The general steps involved in the processing of aloe vera are explained in the following paragraphs.
Reception of raw material
The aloe vera leaves after harvesting must be transported in refrigerated vans from field to the processing plant. The leaves should be sound, undamaged, mold free and mature (3–4 years) in order to keep all the active ingredients in full concentration (Lawless and Allen 2000). One important factor affecting the composition of final product is the handling of the leaves after its harvesting because the decomposition of the gel matrix starts just after its cutting due to natural enzymatic reactions and the activity of bacteria normally present on the leaves. It can adversely affect the quality of the end product. Thus, the freshly removed leaves are refrigerated within 6 h or the leaves are directly fed to processing plant on the farm itself.
In this process green rind of leaf is removed to extract the parenchymatous tissue called the gel fillet (Grindlay and Reynolds 1986). It is reported that the aloe gel extracted from the leaf had greater stability than the gel left in the leaf. In order to avoid the loss of biological activity filleting operation must be completed within 36 h of harvesting the leaves (Robert 1997). The presence of anthraquinones is an important factor leading to non enzymatic browning in aloe products (He et al. 2002).
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Homogenization and enzymatic treatment
It includes crushing or grinding of gel fillet at room temperature (25 °C) in commercial high speed grinder. The crushing or grinding should be completed within 10–20 min in order to avoid the enzymatic browning. Enzymatic treatment of aloe vera gel for a long duration prior to processing is detrimental to polysaccharides.
Filtration and deareation
Fibrous material is removed by this step. This operation influences the stability of aloe vera juice. Poor filtration results in sedimentation of aloe juice on storage. The unpasteurized aloe juice is fortified with vitamin C and citric acid to avoid browning reactions, improve flavor and stabilize the juice .
Hot processing and flash cooling
In hot processing, sterilization is achieved by treating the aloe liquid with the activated carbon at high temperature (Cerqveira et al. 1999). This step may affect the taste, appearance and the biological activity of aloe gel products. Biological activity of aloe vera gel essentially remains intact when gel is heated at 65 °C for a period less than 15 min. Extended periods or higher temperatures greatly reduce activity levels. After heat treatment, the juice is flash cooled to 5 °C or below within 15 s to preserve biological activity.
High temperature short time treatment (at 85–95 °C for 1–2 min) is an effective method to avoid the off flavor and the loss of biological activity of aloe vera gel. Physico-chemical modification promoted by heat treatment at different temperature range from 30 to 80 °C on acemannan was evaluated by Antoni et al. (2003). Heating promotes significant changes in the molecular weight of the bioactive polysaccharide increasing from 45 KDa in fresh aloe to 75 KDa for samples dehydrated at 70 and 80 °C. The physico-chemical alterations of the main type of polysaccharide may have important implications on the physiological activities attributed to the aloe vera plant.
In the cold processing technique, the entire processing steps are accomplished without the application of the heat. Coats (1994) reported the use of enzymes, like glucose oxidase and catalase to inhibit the growth of aerobic organisms within aloe vera gel and thereby sterilizing it. Other sterilization steps reported in the cold processing include exposing the gel to ultraviolet light followed by micron filtration (Maret 1975).
Addition of preservatives and stabilizers
In all the processing techniques, preservation can be achieved by the addition of chemical preservatives and other additives. The use of sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, citric acid and Vitamin E .
Stabilizing agent is added in aloe products to prevent sedimentation of juice upon storage. In an investigation (Yaron et al. 1992) the aloe vera gel was mixed with sulphited polysaccharides isolated from the red micro-algae, guar gum and xantham gum. Rheological studies indicated interaction of aloe vera gel with algal polysaccharides and xantham gum which is depicted by increased apparent viscosities, yield points and in some cases hysteresis but these interactions were not observed with guar gum. These desirable properties did not deteriorate during storage. It was, therefore, proposed that algal polysaccharides or xantham gum could stabilize the network structure of fresh aloe vera polysaccharide.
Aloe vera juice is packed in amber colored glass bottles to avoid the effect of light on the sensitive bioactive agents. Relative humidity and temperature are two most important environmental parameters that affect product quality. These two parameters can also affect the amount of the volatile substance of the juice absorbed by the packaging material.
Aloe juice and its food applications
Traditional method of aloe juice processing
In this method lower one inch of the leaf base, the tapering point (2–4 in.) of the leaf top, the short sharp spines located along the leaf margin as well as the top and bottom rind are removed with sharp knife along with the rind parts to which some mucilage remains attached. The fillet and the mucilage are collected from the aloe leaf for further processing. The highest concentrations of the potentially beneficial aloe constituents are found in mucilage as this layer represent the place of synthesis of the beneficial constituents. The material of the mucilage layer, subsequent to their synthesis, is distributed to the storage cells (cellulose-reinforced hexagons) of the fillet (Ramachandra and Srinivasa Rao 2008). The aloe vera gel fillet is washed with deionized water and transferred to the pulper. The pulper is fitted with refrigerated system that keeps the temperature of the extracted juice lower to prevent decomposition. The aloe vera juice is conveyed to a holding tank and kept for 24 h to decant. Holding tank is also refrigerated for preserving the bioactivity of sensitive molecules of aloe vera.
Whole leaf processing method
The process was developed in 1980’s in USA and undergone continuous improvement by contribution of different workers . The procedure employs cold treatment to ensure product rich in bioactive compounds. In this process the base and tip of leaf are removed. The leaf is cut into sections and ground into particulate slurry in a Fiz Mill (Model D6 Make Arnold equipment company, Ohio) to produce a soup like consistency. The material is then treated with cellulase enzyme which breaks down the hexagonal structure of the fillet and releasing the cell constituents. The rind particles are removed by means of a series of coarse screening filters or passage through a juice press. This liquid is then pumped into large stainless steel sanitized holding tank. Once the tank is filled, it is hooked up to a depulping extractor. This machine removes the large pieces of pulp and rind which are generated by initial grinding process. Now the aloe liquid is passed through a series of filters that removes the aloin and aloe emodin as well as any microscopic traces of leaves, sand or other particles. A press filter is used for this purpose. The press filter’s carbon coated plates absorb the aloin and aloe emodin. Aloe liquid is continually passed through the filter press until the aloin and aloe emodin are removed. The filtered product is then placed in a second holding tank and passed through a press filter containing five micron filter paper. The aloe liquid is now ready for stabilization. This process can produce aloe vera juice containing three times more bio-active constituents than traditional hand filleted process .
The aloe vera juice finds wide application in food products like production of ready to serve drink, health drink, soft drink, laxative drink, aloe vera lemon juice, sherbet, aloe sports drink with electrolyte, diet drink with soluble fiber, hangover drink with B vitamin, amino acids and acetaminophen, healthy vegetable juice mix, tropical fruit juice with aloe vera, aloe vera yoghurts, aloe vera mix for whiskey and white bread, cucumber juice with aloe vera prepared a health beverage from fresh aloe vera leaves. The leaves were washed, pulped, sterilized and filtered, then mixed with different concentrations of Dangshen, Maidong juices and Chinese herbs. Effects of processing conditions e.g. temperature, pH, sucrose, vitamin C and citric acid on the stability of colour and gelatinoids in aloe vera juice were studied and it was concluded that the stability was negatively affected by increasing sucrose and citric acid concentrations while vitamin C and sodium chloride at low concentrations improved the stability. Do-sang et al. (1999) prepared vinegar from aloe vera juice using Acetobactor sp. Lee and Hand-Yoon (1997) made aloe vera yoghurt with lactic acid bacteria (single or mixed strains of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus) and compared it with yoghurt prepared using dried skim milk and it was found that quality retention of aloe vera yoghurt at 5 °C for 15 days was better than the milk yoghurt.
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What is The Lost Book of Remedies? The Lost Book of Remedies PDF contains a series of medicinal and herbal recipes to make home made remedies from medicinal plants and herbs. Chromic diseases and maladies can be overcome by taking the remedies outlined in this book. The writer claims that his grandfather was taught herbalism and healing whilst in active service during world war two and that he has treated many soldiers with his home made cures.
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The book is a direct copy of the little notebook carried around by the author’s grandfather when treating his patients. However, the illustrations of the plants have been updated to photographs so that they are easier for you to identify.
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