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The Tasty Fruit Which Suppresses Chronic Inflammatory Diseases, According to Studies

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By Kyle J. Norton

On seeking natural therapy with no side effects, scientists may have found a whole fruit for the prevention and treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases, according to studies.

Inflammation is a natural immune response which protects our body against the invasion of stimuli and foreign pathogens.

During the acute phase of infection, the immune first line of defense activates the protein associated with the production of blood palettes to cover the wound and inflammatory cytokines to the site of injury with an aim to prevent and kill off microorganisms.

However, overproduction of inflammatory cytokines not only can induce fever, swelling, and pain to the affected area but also damage to the nearby cells and tissue, leading to the formation of scars.

Chronic inflammatory diseases are the class of conditions involved low-grade inflammation to the affect tissue or organ. Some researchers suggested that the immune system has evolved over thousands of year to kill off the foreign invasive pathogens within a period of times, normally between 3 to 8 weeks. If the immune fails to do so, it will adapt to the new change, leading to chronic inflammation.

There are several factors that cause the onset of the conditions. Some scientists indicated untreated acute inflammation, such as an infection or injury and an autoimmune disorder involved immune system mistakenly attacking healthy tissue are the most causes of chronic inflammatory diseases.

Certain risk factors such as long-term exposure to irritants, such as industrial chemicals or polluted air, the increase in age, being obesity or obesity, low sex hormone production, sleep disorder and diet.

 

The Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset Solna study suggested that cigarette smoking is emerging as a strong risk factor in the otherwise unknown etiology of chronic inflammatory diseases. The risk of nicotine smokers showed a substantial increase in the risk of chronic inflammatory diseases compared to ever-nonsmokers.

 

Papaya is a species of Carica Papaya, belonging to the family Caricaceae and native to the tropics of the Americas, and was first cultivated in Mexico and several centuries

Chemical constituents
Alkaloids, Cardenolides, Anthraquinones, Saponins, Tannin, phenol, flavonoid, anthocyanin, Benzyl glucosinolate, benzylisothiocyanate, 5-(Hydroxymethyl)-2-furancarboxaldehyde, 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one and 1,3-dihydroxy-2-propanone, etc.

With an aim to investigate the therapeutic potential of fruit and vegetables in the inhibition of inflammation, with no side-effects and the whole foods additive and synergistic benefits, researchers at the Universiti Putra Malaysia, examined the role of papaya in mediating inflammatory responses.

 

On cells of healthy individuals, according to the flow cytometry methods, injection of the fruit significant inhibited the overexpression of IFN-γ(+), a cytokine that is critical for innate and adaptive immunity and CD4(+), in the activation of the cells of the innate immune system, B-lymphocytes, cytotoxic T cells.

 

The application also showed to increase the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines which play a critical role in reducing the risk of inflammation.

 

These results suggested that papaya suppressed the pro-inflammatory cytokines through its anti-inflammatory response mediated through Tregs, a specialized subpopulation of T cells that act to suppress the immune response.

 

In other words, papaya modulates the systematic immune response through a set of mechanisms in the acute phase of infection.

 

Furthermore, on finding a natural ingredient or whole food for the treatment for patients with sepsis, a serious unbalanced hyperinflammatory condition, researchers evaluated the effect of mangiferin (MF), a natural glucosyl xanthone found in both mango and papaya.

 

Application of mangiferin (MF) was found epidemiologically to attenuate cecal ligation and puncture-induced mortality and acute lung injury (ALI), by reduced systemic and pulmonary inflammatory responses.

 

In Sepsis patients, pretreatment with MF inhibits sepsis-activated mitogen-activated protein kinases which play a critic role in directing cellular responses to a diverse array of stimuli, and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells signaling (NF-κB) associated with the production of pro-inflammatory cytokine for cell survival.

 

These actions indicated that pretreatment with MF inhibits production of proinflammatory mediators associated with immune responses.

 

In the tested animal, MF dose-dependently exhibited the expression and activity of heme oxygenase (HO)-1, a gene which plays a critical role in the prevention of vascular inflammation. in the lung of septic mice.

 

Dr.Gong X, the lead scientist said, ‘MF attenuates sepsis by up-regulation of HO-1 that protects against sepsis-induced ALI through inhibiting inflammatory signaling and proinflammatory mediators”, after taking into account co and confounders.

 

Interestingly, in the evaluated fermented papaya preparation, a functional food supplement, researchers at the Touro College of Pharmacy also found that the fermentation exhibited anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immunostimulatory (at the level of the mucous membrane), through a set of bioactive compounds found in the fruit.

 

Taken altogether, papaya may be considered a functional fruit for the prevention and treatment of the diseases associated with chronic inflammation.

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Back to Kyle J. Norton Homepage http://kylejnorton.blogspot.ca

Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it’s news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada – Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

References
(a) Chemical composition and bioactivity of dried fruits and honey of Ficus carica cultivars Dottato, San Francesco and Citrullara by Loizzo MR1, Bonesi M, Pugliese A, Menichini F, Tundis R.(PubMed)
(1) Carica papayaincreases regulatory T cells and reduces IFN-γ+ CD4+ T cells in healthy human subjects by Abdullah M1, Chai PS, Loh CY, Chong MY, Quay HW, Vidyadaran S, Seman Z, Kandiah M, Seow HF. (PubMed)
(2) Anti-inflammatory effects of mangiferin on sepsis-induced lung injury in mice via up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 by Gong X1, Zhang L, Jiang R, Ye M, Yin X, Wan J.(PubMed)
(3) Applications and bioefficacy of the functional food supplement fermented papaya preparation by Aruoma OI1, Hayashi Y, Marotta F, Mantello P, Rachmilewitz E, Montagnier L.(PubMed)
(4) Smoking, use of moist snuff, and risk of chronic inflammatory diseases by Carlens C1, Hergens MP, Grunewald J, Ekbom A, Eklund A, Höglund CO, Askling J.(PubMed)



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