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Unveiling Hydrogen’s Horizon: From Production to Applications

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Hydrogen doesn’t get the recognition it deserves. This abundant element is not only a key building block in water, but also a clean-burning fuel with the potential to revolutionize our energy landscape. Forget fossil fuels – hydrogen can be produced from a variety of sources, including wind, solar, and even garbage!

While traditional methods rely on natural gas, a cleaner approach using renewable electricity is gaining momentum.  This method, known as electrolysis, is poised for a breakthrough thanks to ongoing research and cost-effective innovations. Buckle up, because hydrogen is about to make a splash – read on to explore its potential as a fuel of the future!


While hydrogen is a valuable resource with many uses, most of it currently comes from fossil fuels. However, a cleaner method of production is gaining traction: using electricity from renewable sources like wind or waterpower to split water molecules in an electrolytic process. This method, though not yet widespread, is expected to become more popular due to ongoing efforts to make it cheaper and more reliable. In short, hydrogen is not just a fuel, but a versatile tool for storing and transporting clean energy.

  • Grey Hydrogen is hydrogen generated from fossil fuels like natural gas or coal, constituting approximately 94% of the world’s hydrogen production. The primary methods for its production involve steam methane reforming and coal gasification, both of which emit carbon dioxide. When this carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere, the resulting hydrogen is termed as grey hydrogen.
  • Blue Hydrogen entails the use of steam methane reforming or coal gasification, but with the majority of CO2 emissions being captured and stored underground through carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology. By preventing the release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, blue hydrogen qualifies as a low-carbon fuel. Despite being a cleaner alternative to grey hydrogen, its production is costly due to the incorporation of carbon capture technology.
  • Green Hydrogen, on the other hand, is produced using electricity derived from clean energy sources like wind and solar power. It is considered a low or zero-emission hydrogen as its production does not emit greenhouse gases. Green hydrogen is generated through water electrolysis, splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen, requiring an energy input. While the process of supplying electricity for electrolysis is expensive, it is significantly more environmentally friendly compared to grey hydrogen production.

Manufacturing Processes

Coal Gasification

The primary method employed for producing hydrogen from coal involves a process known as gasification. This technique, known since the mid-19th century, was initially utilized to produce “town gas” for various local purposes such as cooking, heating, and lighting, akin to the functions served by natural gas today. Gasification operates by subjecting coal to extremely high temperatures and mixing it with oxygen, air, or steam, all without initiating combustion, a process termed partial oxidation.

Step 1: Gasification

Gasification transforms coal into a high-temperature (up to 1800°C) synthesis gas, commonly referred to as syngas. This syngas comprises carbon monoxide, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and minor quantities of other gases and particles. This process involves blending pulverized coal with an oxidizing agent, typically steam, air, or oxygen.

Step 2: Cooling and Cleaning

Following gasification, the syngas undergoes cooling and cleaning to eliminate other gases and particles, resulting in the retention of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen. Syngas cleaning is comparatively simpler than addressing emissions from a pulverized coal power plant. This cleaning phase targets the removal of mercury, sulfur, trace pollutants, and particulate matter.

Step 3: Shifting

The syngas is then directed to a “shift reactor” for the subsequent shift reaction. Within this reaction, carbon monoxide is converted into additional hydrogen and carbon dioxide through interaction with steam. Consequently, the syngas composition is predominantly composed of hydrogen and carbon dioxide.

Step 4: Purification

Once the syngas has undergone shifting, it is segregated into hydrogen and carbon dioxide streams. Following purification, the hydrogen is prepared for utilization. Concurrently, carbon dioxide is captured and directed for sequestration.

Step 5: Utilization

Now, a stream of pure hydrogen is available for a diverse range of applications. It can be combusted in a gas turbine for electricity generation, converted into electricity via a fuel cell, utilized as a fuel for internal combustion engines, or employed as a chemical agent for manufacturing fertilizer, semiconductors, and various other products.

Steam Reforming

  • Before entering the main reactor, natural gas and steam are introduced into the pre-reformer. This stage converts heavier components into methane, preventing the formation of soot and improving process efficiency. Additional steam is injected before reaching the primary reactor, where the synthesis gas (syngas) is generated through an equilibrium-limited, endothermic reaction.
  • Within the reactor, there are two sections: radiant and convective. In the radiant part, there are reaction tubes and burners fueled by natural gas and PSA tail gas. The flue gas exiting this radiant section moves into the convective area for heat retrieval. To optimize hydrogen output, further equilibrium-managed, exothermic water-gas shift (WGS) reactions occur.
  • While the equilibrium of the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction favors low temperatures, reaction rates increase at higher temperatures. Consequently, in many industrial settings, the WGS process involves two stages: high-temperature (HT) and low-temperature (LT) shift reactions. The resulting shifted syngas undergoes separation to isolate purified hydrogen. Over 85% of current global hydrogen production facilities employ pressure-swing adsorption (PSA) technology for hydrogen separation and purification, owing to its cost-effectiveness and ability to produce high-purity hydrogen. PSA systems typically consist of parallel adsorbers operating cyclically. Hydrogen passes through the adsorption columns, while CO2 and other impurities are adsorbed. Lowering the column pressure to atmospheric conditions allows for the desorption of impurities, yielding high-purity hydrogen. PSA tail gas, comprising mainly unreacted methane, hydrogen, and CO2, is combusted with additional natural gas to fuel the reactor furnace.
  • The syngas exiting the reformer, initially at 871°C, is gradually cooled to 320°C and 190°C before entering the high-temperature (HT) and low-temperature (LT) water-gas shift (WGS) reactors, respectively. In the HT shift reaction, the concentration of CO decreases from approximately 10 to 2 mol%.
  • Conversely, the LT reaction capitalizes on the equilibrium favored at temperatures below 250°C, reducing CO concentration to 0.2–0.4%. The lower temperature threshold of 190°C is set by the water dew point under operational conditions to prevent catalyst damage. Since the outlet syngas already contains sufficient water, additional steam is not required for the WGS reactors in the steam methane reformer (SMR). The pressure-swing adsorption (PSA) system operates at 23 bar and 25°C, achieving a hydrogen recovery rate of 90% and a purity of 99.99%. Hydrogen purification involves a pressure drop of 2 bar, while the tail gas exits the system at 2.5 bar.
  • Heat integration aims to minimize the overall energy demand of a process by optimizing heat recovery and utilizing excess heat to generate electricity. This is achieved through the design of a heat exchanger network (HEN) tailored to fulfill the process’s energy needs. The grand composite curve (GCC) represents the overall heat integration network, illustrating the potential for heat exchange and guiding the design process.
  • Co-generation of power occurs through the utilization of excess heat from the process to produce steam, which then drives a condensing turbine. Steam is generated at very high pressure, reaching 90 bar, to maximize power output while minimizing the need for additional cooling duties within the plant.
  • The remaining cooling requirements are met using cooling water. The total power demand of 0.1 kWh/kg H2 in the SMR plant is satisfied through co-generated electricity, rendering the plant self-sufficient in terms of power and heating needs. Following the fulfillment of the plant’s power requirements, there remains 61 MW of excess heat within the SMR process. This surplus heat arises because, despite the steam methane reforming (SMR) reaction being endothermic, the overall process exhibits high exothermicity due to the substantial heat released from combustion, which drives the SMR reactions.

Major Applications of Hydrogen

  1. Ammonia

Ammonia production is where hydrogen plays a pivotal role in this growth. Ammonia is synthesized through the Haber-Bosch method, wherein nitrogen and hydrogen are combined and subjected to elevated temperature and pressure along with a catalyst to yield ammonia. Ammonia serves as a fundamental ingredient in the production of nitrogen fertilizer, playing a vital role in agricultural practices worldwide. Additionally, its versatility extends to various other applications, including refrigeration systems for air conditioning, the production of plastics, formulation of detergents, synthesis of explosives, and as a key component in the manufacturing of pesticides. Its multifaceted uses underline its significance across diverse industries, contributing to the functionality and efficiency of numerous products and processes.

  1. Refining

Hydrogen finds extensive utilization within refineries across a spectrum of applications. One such application involves its use in hydrotreating processes, aimed at purifying crude oil and petroleum products by removing impurities. Additionally, hydrogen serves as a crucial feedstock in catalytic reforming operations, facilitating the production of high-octane gasoline. Moreover, it plays a pivotal role in hydrocracking processes, where heavy hydrocarbons are converted into lighter, more valuable products, enhancing the efficiency and versatility of refinery operations.

  1. Methanol

Methanol, a vital industrial chemical, undergoes synthesis and distillation through complex chemical processes that involve the interaction of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor. In this intricate synthesis, hydrogen plays a pivotal role as a key reactant, combining with carbon dioxide and water vapor under specific conditions to form methanol. Through carefully controlled reactions and precise distillation techniques, methanol is produced and separated from other components, ensuring purity and quality in its final form. This synthesis and distillation process underscores the importance of methanol as a versatile compound with diverse applications across various industries, from fuel production to chemical manufacturing and beyond.

4. Fuel

Hydrogen demonstrates its versatility as a clean energy source by being effectively utilized in fuel cells, where it undergoes a chemical reaction rather than combustion to generate power. Remarkably, this process yields only water and heat as byproducts, making it an environmentally friendly alternative. The applications of hydrogen in fuel cells extend across various domains, including automotive usage, residential applications within houses, portable power solutions, and a myriad of other industrial and commercial applications.

Market Outlook

Alarmed by worsening climate change and pollution, the world is turning to clean energy solutions. Hydrogen, a clean burning fuel, is poised for significant growth as countries strive to reduce carbon emissions. Government policies are actively promoting both hydrogen production and consumption, with a strong focus on zero-carbon solutions like green hydrogen. This shift is creating fertile ground for innovative hydrogen production companies, but challenges remain. Transforming existing infrastructure – natural gas pipelines, fueling stations, and port facilities – needs to be addressed to accommodate hydrogen effectively. Despite these hurdles, the potential is undeniable. With the European Union and others embracing hydrogen as a future fuel, massive investments are on the horizon, attracting companies eager to tap into this burgeoning green market.

Hydrogen Major Global Players

Top players in the Global Hydrogen market are Air Products, Praxair, Air Liquide, Linde plc, Chevron Usa Inc, Sinopec, Valero, Phillips 66 Company, Wrb Refining Lp, Flint Hills Resources Lp, Bp West Coast Products Llc, Martinez Refining Co Llc, Hyundai-Wison, Deokyang, Delaware City Refining Co Llc, Cenex Harvest States Coop, Hollyfrontier El Dorado Refining Llc, Sinclair Wyoming Refining Co, and Others.


Hydrogen is integral to various industrial processes. In petroleum refining, it aids in sulfur removal, enhancing fuel cleanliness. It’s also utilized in metal treatment and ammonia production, vital for fertilizer. In food processing, hydrogen finds applications. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs) employ hydrogen fuel cells for electricity generation, offering advantages like zero emissions and swift refueling. Hydrogen holds promise in energy storage, generated via surplus renewable energy and used during intermittent. In chemical production, hydrogen contributes to ammonia, methanol, and synthetic fuel manufacturing. Notably, in steel production, hydrogen offers a clean alternative to coal, curbing greenhouse gas emissions. These diverse applications underscore hydrogen’s significance across industries, from refining to transportation, energy storage, chemical synthesis, and sustainable steelmaking. Hydrogen’s versatility fuels a clean energy future. From powering eco-friendly cars and storing renewable energy to making fertilizer and steel cleaner, hydrogen is making waves across industries. Governments are pushing for its production and use, with a focus on zero-carbon methods like electrolysis.

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