Read the Beforeitsnews.com story here. Advertise at Before It's News here.
Profile image
By The Blaring Trumpet (Dr. Luke Prophet)
Contributor profile | More stories
Story Views
Now:
Last hour:
Last 24 hours:
Total:

Only Ten Commandments? The Commandments For Israelite Christians Today That We Are All Supposed To Abide By According To The God Of Abraham Isaac and Jacob.

% of readers think this story is Fact. Add your two cents.


Only Ten Commandments?  The Commandments For Israelite Christians Today That We Are All Supposed To Abide By According To God Of Abraham Isaac and Jacob

By Luke Prophet

If one were to ask the first one hundred people they met on a street the question “How many Commandments did God give to the Israelites through Moses at Mount Sinai?,” the vast majority would answer ten.  Some of them would most probably be able to recite some of the ten from memory.  However, ten would be the wrong answer!

In the book of Exodus, it states that with all of the Israelites surrounding Mount Sinai, God gave the first ten of His Commandments verbally to the Israelites.  On hearing the voice of God, the Israelites were terribly afraid, so they told Moses to speak to God alone, and for Moses to then tell them what God had said concerning them. 

Moses went up Mount Sinai to speak to God himself, at which point God gave Moses the Commandments for the Israelites, a total of 611 in all.   The Holy Gematria of the word “Torah” is 611, and combining these with the two commandments received directly from God in Genesis, to “be fruitful and multiply” and regarding male circumcision, the total is 613.  (The 613 Commandments consisted of 248 Positive and 365 Negative Commandments.)  This begs three further questions.  How many of these Commandments remain in force today?  Who do they apply to?  Do they apply equally to both men and women?

Due to the fact that the Sanctuary (Temple) no longer exists in Jerusalem, 245 Commandments remain relevant for us today.  The breakdown is 64 Positive Commandments and 181 Negative Commandments.

Any Israelite (both male and female) living what we consider today a normal life:  that is to say that they live in a dwelling in a community, eat ordinary food, namely bread, fish and meat, pursue a normal occupation, is married or intends in the future to marry, and has, or intends to have a family is subject to these Commandments.  (There are 14 Positive Commandments, and three negative commandments, out of the total of 242 Commandments applicable today, that do not apply to females, and they are specifically spelled out in this work under the individual Commandment.)

     The Tribes of Israel 

Tribe              Nation
         

Priesthood of Levi   Spread out amongst the Nations*

Simeon                    Spain/Portugal


Rueben                   Holland


Nephtali                   Norway


Dan                          Denmark


Judah:


Pharez                     Northern Germanic people

Zerah                       Ireland, Scotland and Wales

 

Issachar                   Finland


Asher                       Sweden

Zebulon                    France / Belgium

Gad                          Lombardi North Italy

Benjamin                  Iceland


Joseph:


Ephraim                    Britain and the British Commonwealth Nations


Manasseh                 USA


If you or your ancestors were born in any of the sixteen  European Nations mentioned above, you are a Hebrew and an Israelite. If you were born in America, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, or South Africa, you are a Hebrew and Israelite. Abraham and Sarah, the father and mother of our nation Israel, crossed over the Euphrates River from Sumer. The word Hebrew means one who crossed over. The word Jew did not come into use in the English language until 1775, when it first appeared in Sheridan’s play “The Rivals”. If you find the word Jew in your bible it is a mistranslation. The word that should have been used is Judean for the area of Palestine. Jesus or Yeshua and his family were not Jews. They were Judahites living in Judea and therefore referred to as Judeans as well.  Yeshua and his family were Essenes living in Qumran, which the Bible  refers to as Bethlehem Ephrathah (Micah 5:2)

The Greatest Hoax in History Is That the Jews Claim That They Are God;s Chosen People – Christians Duped by the Unholiest Hoax in All History, by Modern Jewry Who Say They Are Jews but Are Not but Do Lie – Awesome Videos That Reveal the Truth!

/christian-news/2020/10/the-greatest-hoax-in-history-is-that-the-jews-are-god-of-abraham-isaac-and-jacobs-chosen-people-christians-duped-by-the-unholiest-hoax-in-all-history-by-modern-jewry-who-say-they-are-jews-2589229.html

The Jews today are not Semites. They are Edomites, as their own Jewish Encyclopedia vol. 5 page 41 tells us. DNA analysis of the desert rats living in the State of Rottenchild today prove that they are Khazars. The Khazars were never in bondage in Egypt and never participated in the Exodus, as they even admitted to Messiah Jesus in John 8:33. The British sold our birthright in the form of the Balfour Declaration to the Khazars in exchange for Rottenchild’s financial backing of Britain during the First World War.

The Positive Commandments

Note  ‘Transgressions may be divided into four classes:  (1) involuntary transgressions, (2) sins committed in ignorance, (3) sins done knowingly, and (4) sins done spitefully.  He who sins involuntarily is, according to the distinct declaration of the Torah, exempt from punishment [see Neg. Comm. 294], and free from all blame. . . If a person sins in ignorance, he is culpable; for if he had been more considerate and careful, he would not have erred.  Although he is not punished, his sin must be atoned for. . . He who has sinned knowingly must pay the penalty prescribed in the law. . . If a person sins presumptuously, so that in sinning he shows impudence and seeks publicity, if he does not sin only to satisfy his appetite. . . but in order to oppose and to resist the law, he ‘reproacheth the Lord’ (Num. XV, 30). 

    1. Believing in God

By this injunction we are commanded to believe in God; that is, to believe that there is a Supreme being who is the Creator of everything in existence.  It is contained in His words:  I am the Lord thy God, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt (Exodus 20:3).

This Commandment—the first of the Decalogue—is of the very essence of belief.  Indeed, without a firm belief in the existence of the Deity, or Lord of the Universe, and without a firm conviction and clear sense of His All-transcendent Reality—such as were directly decreed by the Almighty Himself under the terms of this Commandment—an understanding of the bible and the observance of its Commandments become utter impossibilities.  The second Commandment of the Decalogue is but a restatement of the first Commandment in respect of its negative implications.  Any Israelite who denies the existence of the Deity, or concedes the existence of any deity beside Him, is an apostate.

2.  Unity of God

By this injunction we are commanded to believe in the Unity of God; that is to say, to believe that the Creator of all things in existence and their First Cause is One.  This injunction is contained in His words:  Hear O Israel:  the Lord our God, the Lord is One. (Deuteronomy 4:4)

This Commandment which enunciates the principle of monotheism also expresses in vividness and intensity the belief that “the Lord who is our God and not yet the God of other peoples of the world, will at some future time be the One (sole) God”.

3.   Love of God

By this injunction we are commanded to love God; that is to say, to dwell upon and contemplate His Commandments, His injunctions, and His works, so that we may obtain a conception of Him, and in conceiving Him attain absolute joy.  This constitutes the Love of God, and is obligatory.  Since it is said:  And thou shalt love the Lord thy God (Deuteronomy 6:5) the question arises, how is one to manifest their love for the Lord?  Scripture therefore says:  And these words which I command thee this day, shall be upon thy heart (Deuteronomy 6:6) for through the contemplation of God’s words you will learn to discern Him whose word called the Universe into existence.  Once you have obtained a conception of God, you will reach a state of joy in which love of God will follow of necessity.  This commandment also includes an obligation to call upon all humankind to serve God and have faith in Him.  And thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, with all thy soul, with all thy might:  with all thy heart means to love God with your two impulses, the evil impulse as well as the good impulse.  With all thy soul means even though God will eventually take your soul (life).  Will all thy might means whatever treatment you receive from God, good or bad, you shall still always love God.

4. Fear of God

By this injunction we are commanded to have fear and awe of God and not to be at ease and self-confident but to expect His punishment at all times.  This injunction is contained in His words:  Thou shalt fear the Lord thy God (Deut. 6:13, 10:20).  Commandments One, Two, Three and Four are binding for all time, and are subject to no limitations whatsoever as to time, occasion, place, or person.  These four Commandments are to be obeyed, remembered, and enforced uninterruptedly every moment of one’s conscious existence.  Only then may the words of the Psalmist be given meaning and reality:  I have set the Lord always before me (Ps. XVI, 8) –with never-wearying and unswerving perseverance should one strive to establish in their consciousness an unfailing and unceasing awareness of the reality and proximity of God.  Only then may one hope to conduct themselves in complete accord with the letter and the spirit of these four Divine Commandments.

What is the way of acquiring the love and fear (of the Lord)?  If one considers His Infinite Powers and the entire range of created creatures on this Earth that are both wondrous and great—perceiving through them how His wisdom has neither measure nor end—One cannot but love, praise, and glorify Him, becoming possessed of a great longing to know God .  David says, “My soul thirsteth for God, for the living God (Ps. XLII, 3).  Meditating upon these things you will immediately be taken aback, being overcome by fear and dread, and realizing that you are a minute creature, utterly humble, and immersed in darkness, conscious of the feebleness of your own mind in the presence of Him who is possessed of perfect knowledge.  As David says, “When I behold Thy heavens, the work of Thy fingers, the moon and the stars, which Thou hast established; what is man, that Thou are mindful of him?”

5. Worshipping God

By this injunction we are commanded to serve God.  Whence do we learn that Prayer is obligatory?  From the verse: Thou Shalt fear the Lord thy God; and Him shalt thou serve. (1 Kings 8:30).  When praying, you should pray towards Jerusalem in the East as Solomon said.

Note:  The chief thing in prayers is devotion—more literally, ‘direction of the heart’.  Now what is devotion?  One must free their heart from all other thoughts and regard yourself as standing in the presence of God.  Therefore, before engaging in prayer, the worshipper should collect themself in order to bring themselves into a devotional frame of mind, and then pray quietly and with feeling, not like one who carries a weight on his back and throws it away and then carries on with his daily life.

6. Cleaving to God

By this injunction we are commanded to mix and associate with wise men, to be always in their company, and to join with them in every possible manner of fellowship:  in eating, drinking, and business affairs, to the end that we may succeed in becoming like them in respect of their actions and in acquiring true opinions from their words.  This injunction is contained in His words: (Deut. 10:20) And to Him shalt thou cleave, which are repeated in the verse, And to cleave unto Him.

It is one’s duty to marry a wise man’s daughter, to give one’s own daughter in marriage to a wise man, and to have business relations with wise men.  In doing the above, it is to be regarded in this verse as cleaving to God, For the Lord thy God is a devouring fire.

7. Taking an oath by God’s name

You shall not swear an oath using God’s name or swear in vain using the name of God.  Owing to the seriousness of the consequences which flow from the utterance of a false oath—since in the case of every such transgression Israelites as a whole, without regard to individual culpability, are held surety and subject to punishment—swearing by the Name of the Lord before any Court should be completely abolished with other forms of oaths being used instead.  All transgressions may be forgiven except those involving a false oath.  Even where uttered in all innocence, and where it was not in anyone’s power to prevent it, the offender must suffer punishment.  ‘The whole world was shaking to its foundation when God proclaimed:  Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain’.

8. Walking in God’s ways

By this injunction we are commanded to be like God as far as it is in our power.  This injunction is contained in His words:  And thou shalt walk in His ways (Deut. 28:9), and also in an earlier verse in His words:  [What doth the Lord thy God require of thee, but to fear the Lord thy God,] to walk in all His ways? (Deut. 10:12).

‘Just as God is called Merciful, so should you be merciful; just as He is called Gracious, so should you be gracious; just as He is called Righteous, so should you be righteous.’

The duty of imitating God, as expressed in this Commandment, is one of the fundamental teachings of the Bible.  It finds its classic expression in the verse:  Ye shall be holy, for I the Lord your God am holy (Lev 19:2).

9. Sanctifying God’s name

By this injunction we are commanded to sanctify God’s Name.  It is contained in His words:  But I will be hallowed among the children of Israel (Lev 22:32).  The purpose of this Commandment is that we are duty bound to proclaim this truth to the world, undeterred by fear of injury from any source.  Even if a tyrant tries to compel us by force to deny our God, we must not obey, but must positively rather submit to death; and we must not even mislead the tyrant into supposing that we have denied our God while in our hearts we continue to believe and have faith in our God.

10. Reading the Bible

This commandment is only binding for men and not women.

By this injunction every Israelite is commanded to read the following Bible passages in this particular order twice a day in the morning and at night:  Deut 6:4-9, Deut 11:13-21 and Numbers 15:  37-41.  It is expressed in His words:  And thou shalt talk of them (Deut.6:7).

11. Studying the Bible

This commandment is only binding for men and not women.

By this injunction we are commanded to teach and to study the Bible.  This injunction is contained in His words:  And thou shall teach them diligently unto thy children (Deut 6:7).  Diligently means when someone asks a question, your response should be immediate.  This Commandment is repeated many times:  And ye shall teach them (Deut 11:19), and do them (Num 15:39), and that they may learn (Deut 31:12).

12. The Fringes

This commandment is only binding for men and not women.

By this injunction we are commanded to wear Fringes.  It is contained in His words.  That they make them [throughout their generations] fringes in the corners of their garments, and that they put with the fringe of each corner a thread of blue (Num 15:38).

Why was the colour blue chosen from all the other colours?  Because blue resembles the sea, the sea resembles heaven, and heaven resembles the Throne of Glory. By wearing the blue thread in the Fringes the Israelite was thus reminded of the great Reality in life – God.

The art of dyeing the thread blue was the secret of a few families on the coasts of ancient Palestine, the blood of a native mollusk, called chilazon, being use for the purpose.  After the destruction of the Second Temple, and the subsequent loss of this art, the use of the blue thread in the Fringes was discontinued.  In our day, the Fringes are attached either to a prayer shawl, or to a cotton undershirt, and the former is used for worship; the latter – a sort of light undergarment fitting over the neck and shoulders – is worn throughout the day.  Fringes are obligatory in the daytime only.  The tzitzit (“knotted fringes”) of the tallit (“[prayer]shawl”) are connected to the 613 commandments by gematria:  the word tzitzit has a value of 600.  Each tassel has eight threads (when doubled over) and five sets of knots, totaling 13.  Thus the sum of all numbers is 613, and when donning a garment, the tzitzit reminds its wearer of the Commandments.

The Fringes which must be attached to all four corners of the Fringed Robe are made as follows:  Four threads specially woven for the purpose, and measuring generally over two feet, are passed through an opening situation a few thumbs’ breadth away from each of the four corners of the garment.  The threads are then doubled, and form the two knots that are formed at the lower edge of the garment a fringe of eight threads is thus suspended. One of the threads which is longer than the rest is wound around the remaining seven in four series of rings, generally comprising seven, eight, eleven, and thirteen windings respectively, each series terminating in a double knot, making thirty-nine rings and five double knots in each of the four Fringes.  The windings correspond both in their combination and in their aggregate to the Hebrew letter-numbers of Adonai Eha, ‘The Lord is One.’  Again, the aggregate of the letter-numbers of the Scriptural word Tzitzith is 600, together with the eight threads and five double knots found in every Fringe, corresponds to taryag, or 613.  Thus by looking at the Fringes we are to Remember all the commandments of the Lord which number 613 (Num. XV, 39).

13. The Mezuzah or Marker

By this injunction we are commanded to obtain a Mezuzh or marker.  It is contained in His words:  And thou shall write them upon the door posts of thy house (Deut 6:9).  A Mezuzah is a Marker nailed or screwed on the exterior and interior doors of your home (on the right-hand frame of the door).  Inside the marker are two written portions of the Bible (Deut 6:4-9) and (Deut 11:13-21).

The object of this Commandment is as follows:  One is under the obligation to be heedful in [the observance of the Commandment pertaining to] the Mezuzah, for it is a duty which is ever incumbent upon everyone, so that whenever they come or go out of their home they will encounter [this reminder of] God remembering to love Him.

A Mezuzah or Marker is put on all interior doors of your home except bathrooms and on all exterior doors.  It is installed on an angle pointing to the right on the right hand side of the door frames.

14. Acquiring a Scroll of Law

This commandment is only binding for men and not women.

By this injunction we are commanded that every Israelite among us is to have a Scroll of the Law for himself.  This scroll can be written in his own hand or acquired from a third party.  If he writes it with his own hand, Scripture considers it as he had received it from Mount Sinai.  If he cannot write it himself, he is obliged to purchase one. This injunction is expressed in His words:  Now therefore write ye this song for you (Deut 31:19).  Now since it is not permissible to write [a Scroll of the Law containing only] certain sections of it, it follows of necessity that the words ‘this song’ mean the whole of the law which includes ‘this song’.

Even if one’s parents have left a Scroll of the Law, your nevertheless are commanded to write one of your own as it is said, Now therefore write ye this song for you.

A Scroll of the Law must be written on sheets of parchment, specially prepared from the skins of levitically clean animals, and so sewn together as to comprise the Five Books of Moses in their entirety.  Only the square Hebrew characters are used, as prescribed by established law and usage.  The writing—a task specially sacred—is entrusted to a professional Scribe, who is both skilled in this art and devoutly religious, for a Scroll that is written by an unbeliever is worse than it were written by an idolater, and must be burned.  Before commencing to write the Scribe sanctifies it in the words:  ‘I herewith dedicate this Scroll, which I am writing as a holy Scroll of the Law.’ In like manner, before writing the Name of the Lord, the Scribe must first sanctify it as such; and the rules affecting the forms and combinations of letters are strict in the extreme.  In writing a Scroll of the Law the Scribe must have before him a finished copy, from which he reads, pronouncing every word before inscribing it.

In transporting it from place to place one must carry it near his heart, avoiding any slight or mark of disesteem as far as possible.  He who sits in the presence of a Scroll of the Law must observe great solemnity, abiding in fear and in awe of the trustworthy testimony [of God’s word] as handed on to all generations, as it is said:  That it may be there for a witness against thee (Deut. XXXI, 26); and he is therefore to honour it as far as it is in his power to do so.

15. Grace after meals

By this injunction we are commanded to bless the Lord after every meal.  It is contained in His words:  And thou shalt eat and be satisfied, and bless the Lord thy God. (Deut.8:10).

16. Honouring the Priests

By this injunction we are commanded to exalt the descendants of Aaron, to show them honour and deference, and to assign to them a high degree of holiness and dignity, even overriding their own objections.  All this is for the glory of the Lord since He has taken them for His service and the offering of His sacrifices.  This injunction is contained in His words:  Thou shalt sanctify him therefore; for he offereth the bread of thy God; he shall be holy until thee (Lev 21:8), which interprets thus:  ‘Thou shalt sanctify him in all matters appertaining to holiness:  that is to say, he shall be first in all holy matters (e.g. the reading of the Bible); he shall have the first right to recite the Benediction at a meal; and he shall be first to receive a seemly portion.’

Thou shalt sanctify himeven against his will’ (Lev 21:8); that is to say, this is a Commandment laid upon us, and it does not depend on the Priest’s wishes.

So too it says:  ‘They shall be holy unto their God (Lev 21:6)—even against their will.  Therefore, they shall be holy—including even those who have a blemish [by which they are invalidated for service in the Sanctuary].’  We are not to argue thus:  ‘Since this Priest [who has a blemish] is unfit to offer the bread of his God, why should we give him precedence and show him honour and respect?; for He has said, Therefore, they shall be holy, meaning the whole of this honourable family, unblemished and blemished alike.

17. Rejoicing on the Festivals

By this injunction we are commanded to rejoice on God’s ordained Festivals.  It is contained in His words:  And thou shalt rejoice in they feast (Deut. 16:14). 

Women are under obligation to take part in the festivals, and Scripture says:  Thou shalt sacrifice peace-offerings, and shalt eat there; and thou shalt rejoice before the Lord thy God (Deut. 27:7).

The words:  thou shalt rejoice in thy feast, include the further injunction that we are to rejoice by all possible modes of rejoicing, as by eating meat on the festivals, drinking wine, putting on new garments, distributing fruits and sweets to children and making merry with musical instruments.

The most binding of these [modes of rejoicing] is the drinking of wine, because that is specially associated with rejoicing.  We are to include the poor, the needy and the stranger in our rejoicing.

18. Making a Personal Confession

By this injunction we are commanded to make oral confession of the sins we have committed against the Lord after we have repented of them.  This is the form of confession:  ‘O God, I have sinned, I have committed iniquity, I have transgressed, and I have done this and that.’  One must elaborate and ask forgiveness with all the eloquence at his command.

This follows from His words:  Speak unto the children of Israel:  When a man or woman shall commit any sin that men commit…then they shall confess their sin which they have done (Num 5:6-7).  The words, which they have done, extends the application to violations of both Negative and Positive Commandments (Num 5:6-7). 

The essence of confession is that it contains the two elements of repentance, i.e. regret over the sin committed, and the resolve never again to repeat the offence. Its formula is:  ‘O God, I have sinned, I have done iniquity, I have transgressed against Thee, and have done whatever.  I am sorry and ashamed for my deeds, and I will never do it again.’  Great is [the power of] repentance, for it reaches directly unto the Throne of God.

Your iniquities have separated you and your God (Isa. LIX,2); crying [unto the Lord] without being answered, as it is said, Yea, when ye make many prayers, I will not hear (ibid., I, 15); observing Commandments only to have them hurled back in your face, as it is said,[When ye come to appear before Me], who hath required this at your hand, to trample My courts? (ibid.,12)—Oh that there were even among you that would shut the doors—that ye might not kindle fire on Mine altar in vain (Mal, I, 10); this same person today [by virtue of repentance] has become attached unto the Lord, as it is said, But ye that did cleave unto the Lord, etc (Deut, IV, 4); their cries are immediately answered, as it is said, And it shall come to pass that, before they call, I will answer, etc. (Isa. LXV, 24); their observance of the Commandments is cheerfully and joyously accepted, as it is said, God hath already accepted thy works (Eccl. IX, 7). 

19. All oral commitments to be fulfilled

By this injunction we are commanded to fulfill every obligation that we have taken upon ourselves by word of mouth—every oath, vow, offering, and the like.  It is contained in His words:  That which is gone out of thy lips thou shalt observe (Deut 23:24).  To fail to observe this Positive Commandment would result in violating a Negative Commandment.  This Commandment is also found elsewhere:  He shall do according to all that proceedeth out of his mouth (Num 30:3).

20. Ritual Slaughter of Animals

By this injunction we are commanded that we must kill animals in the prescribed manner before eating their flesh, which becomes permitted food only by killing in that manner.  This injunction is contained in His words:  Then thou shalt kill of thy herd and of thy flock. . .as I have commanded thee; (Deut 12:21).  Animals [not sacrificed but] killed for food must be killed in a specified manner.  As I have commanded thee:  this teaches us that Moses was [specifically] commanded concerning [the cutting of] the gullet and the windpipe, and concerning the [cutting] of the greater part [of either gullet or windpipe] in birds, and of the greater part of both in cattle.

The law of ritual slaughtering provides that both the windpipe and the gullet—or the greater part of the two—must be cut across in clean cattle and beasts and that only the windpipe or the gullet, or the greater part of either, need be cut across in fowls and birds.  The knife must be specifically prepared and examined for the occasion, and the blade must be free from the minutest notches, indentations or irregularities of any kind.  The animal may not be eaten if it is not properly slaughtered, so that special care must be taken to ensure that the following regulations are strictly observed:  (1) there must be no delay or interruption in the to-and-fro movement of the knife during the slaughtering; (2) no undue pressure may be brought to bear upon the knife; (3) the knife may in no way be thrust or dug in anywhere under the skin—still less may the blade be inserted between the gullet and the windpipe; (4) the incision must be made below the large ring of the windpipe and no way below the upper lobe of the inflated lungs; (5) the gullet and windpipe may in no way be torn out of their respective positions during the slaughtering.  Hence it has always been customary to entrust fulfillment of this Commandment only to duly ordained, expert slaughterers.

On completion of the slaughter the knife must again be examined—this time to ascertain if a notch has been formed on the blade in the course of slaughter, since in that event the animal may not be eaten.  The animal also must be examined after slaughter to ascertain if the prescribed organs have been properly cut. 

In this day and age, it is only kosher meat from a Kosher Butcher that meets these slaughtering requirements.

21. Covering the blood of slain birds and animals

By this injunction we are commanded to cover up the blood of a bird or animal after slaughter.  This injunction is contained in His words:  He shall pour out the blood thereof, and cover it with dust (Lev 17:13).

22. Searching for prescribed tokens in cattle and animals

By this injunction we are commanded concerning the tokens [of cleanness] in tame and wild animals; that is to say, that they chew the cud and are completely cloven-footed, whereby they become permitted food.  To examine animals for these tokens is a Positive Commandment, contained in His words:  These are the living things which ye may eat (Lev 11:12).

23. Searching for the prescribed tokens in birds

By this injunction we are commanded to search for the tokens [of cleanness] in birds, only certain kinds of which are permitted food.  The tokens in the case of birds are not stated in the Bible but have been ascertained by investigation.  When we examine all the kinds which are individually declared forbidden, we find certain properties that are common to them, and these are the tokens of unclean birds.  This injunction to examine birds and pronounce this unclean and that clean is a Positive Commandment.

Of all clean birds ye may eat:  (Deut 14:11) this is a Positive Commandment.

Note:  While the tokens in the case of birds are not expressly stated in Scripture, one may specify them as follows:  Any bird that seizes its prey in its claws is unclean; and any that has an extra toe, a crop, and a gizzard that can be peeled, is clean. 

24. Searching for the prescribed tokens in fishes

By this injunction we are commanded concerning the tokens [of cleanness] in fishes, which are defined in His words:  These may ye eat of all that are in the waters, etc. (Lev 11:9).  He who eats an unclean fish violates a Positive and a Negative Commandment –since from His words:  these may ye eat, infers that other fish are not to be eaten, and a Negative Commandment derived from a Positive Commandment has the force of a Positive Commandment.  Thus it is clear that His words:  these may ye eat are a Positive Commandment.  This means, that we are commanded to decide on the basis of these tokens that one fish is permitted food, and another is not permitted, as Scripture clearly says:  Ye shall separate between the clean beast and the unclean (Lev 20:25).

The separation can be made only by means of the [prescribed] tokens, and therefore [the injunction to search for] the tokens in each of the three types [of living creatures] – animals tame and wild, birds, and fish – is a separate and distinct Commandment.

Among fishes [these are clean]:  all that have fins and scales. . . The scales must be such as are immovable, and the fins the means by which it swims – and not limbs by which it can propel itself on dry land.  

25. Resting on the Sabbath (Friday sunset to Saturday sunset)

By this injunction we are commanded to rest on the Sabbath.  It is contained in His words:  On the seventh day thou shalt rest (Exodus 34:21), and is repeated several times (Lev 23:3).  To rest from all labour is an obligation applying to us, to our animals and to our employees or anyone we temporarily hire.

Thus God commanded us to abstain from work on the Sabbath, and to rest, for two purposes; namely:  (1) That we might confirm the true theory, that of the Creation, which at once and clearly leads to the theory of the existence of God.  (2) That we might remember how kind God has been in freeing us from the burden of work once weekly.  The Sabbath is therefore a double blessing:  it gives us correct thoughts, and also promotes the well-being of our bodies.

The object of the Sabbath is obvious, and requires no explanation.  The rest it affords to man is known; one-seventh of the life of every man, whether small or great, passes in comfort, and in rest from trouble and exertion. 

The observance of the Sabbath is among the most fundamental Commandments:  ‘The Commandments relating to the Sabbath and Idolatry are each equal to [the sum of] all the other Commandments of the Bible, the Sabbath being designated as a sign between God and ourselves, for all eternity.  Hence those who [willfully] transgresses any of the other Commandments of the Bible remains nevertheless numbered among the wicked, but he who violates the Sabbath openly is as if they had worshipped idols, and both of them [i.e. the idol-worshipper and the Sabbath-breaker] are regarded as idolaters in all respects. 
The Sabbath begins at sunset Friday and ends at sunset Saturday.  One must be at their home when Sabbath begins on Friday at sunset. 

26. Proclaiming the sanctity of the Sabbath

By this injunction we are commanded to recite certain words at the commencement and the end of the Sabbath, mentioning in them the greatness and high dignity of the day, and its distinction from the weekdays which have preceded it and are to follow it.  This injunction is contained in His words:   Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy (Exodus 20:8):  that is to say, commemorate it by proclaiming its holiness and its greatness.  This is the Commandment of sanctification, Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy:  [that is], to sanctify it by [reciting] a blessing.  Remember [the Sabbath] over wine, and also:  Sanctify it on its coming-in and sanctify it at its going-out.

Besides ‘remembering’ the Sabbath as prescribed in this Commandment, the Sabbath should be made the special object of ‘honour’ and ‘delight’ (Call the Sabbath a delight, and the holy of the Lord honourable (Isa. LVIII, 13).  The term ‘honour’ implies the duties of bathing immediately before the Sabbath, of wearing special Sabbath clothes, and of joyfully receiving the Sabbath.  The term ‘delight’ implies the kindling of candles at the approach of sunset on the Sabbath eve – a prerogative primarily belonging to the wife of the household – the enjoyment of special delicacies, and a minimum provision of three Sabbath meals over the Sabbath period (Friday evening to Saturday evening).  Married couples should have sex on the Sabbath. 

27. Removal of Leaven

By this injunction we are commanded to remove leaven (bread made from any of five species of grain) from our home on the fourteenth day of Nisan.  Nisan is the first month of the year in the Jewish calendar, corresponding to March or April.  This is the Commandment of the Removal of Leaven, and is contained in His words:  Howbeit the first day ye shall put away leaven out of your houses (Exodus 12:15).  This means on the day preceding the Festival of Passover, which is on the fifteenth day of Nisan.  Leavened bread involves both a Positive and a Negative Commandment:  the positive injunction is to put it away – Ye shall put away leaven out of your houses – and the negative is [contained in the words:  Seven days] shall there be no leaven found in your houses.

Israelites have an obligation to ‘search’ for leavened bread on the night of the fourteenth day of Nisan.  After the search an oral declaration is made, in which ownership is disclaimed of all leaven that may have remained in one’s possession undiscovered.  All leavened bread discovered during the search must be completely destroyed before the end of the fifth hour of the following morning.  It may be burned, crumbled or scattered to the winds; it is customary, however, to burn it.  A final disclaimer of all leaven is then recited if the burning is done before the sixth hour of the day. 

26. Recounting the departure from Egypt during Passover

By this injunction we are commanded to recite the story of the Exodus from Egypt, with all the eloquence at our command, on the eve of the fifteenth of Nisan.  He is to be commended who expands this theme, enlarging on the iniquity of the Egyptians and the sufferings which they inflicted on us, and on the way in which the Lord wrought His vengeance upon them, and offering Him thanks for all the good that He has bestowed upon us.

In Scripture this injunction is contained in His words:  Thou shalt tell thy son in that day, [saying:  It is because of that which the Lord did for me when I came forth out of Egypt] (Exodus 13:8) ‘And thou shalt tell they son:  one might think [the story of the Exodus was to be told] from the first day of the month [of Nissan] onwards; Scripture therefore says, in that day.  The words in that day might be taken to mean in the daytime; Scripture therefore says, it is because of that—an expression which would not be used except at a time when unleavened bread and bitter herbs are before you.  Thus it is a duty to tell [the story of the Exodus] only after nightfall. 

And it shall be when thy son asketh thee, etc., one might think that you are to tell your son if he asks you, but not otherwise.  Scripture therefore says, thou shalt tell thy son—even though he does not ask you.  Again, one might think that [the duty rests only on one] who has a son [with him]; whence do we infer that it applies also to one who is alone, or among strangers?  From the words of Scripture:  Moses said unto the people:  Remember this day’ (Exodus 15:3) that is to say, [Moses told the people] that God commanded us to remember [the Exodus], just as He ordained, Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy (Exodus 20:8).

29. Unleavened bread to be eaten on the eve of the fifteenth day of Nisan

By this injunction we are commanded to eat unleavened bread on the eve of the fifteenth of Nisan, whether the Passover lamb has been offered or not. It is contained in His words:  (Exodus 12:18). ‘At even ye shall eat unleavened bread (Exodus 12:18) – Scriptures lays it down as an obligation.’

The eating of unleavened bread is obligatory on the first night [of the festival], and optional thereafter.  To eat leavened bread is forbidden throughout the festival for all seven days.

What is the reason for this commandment?  The Israelites baked unleavened cakes during their Exodus out of Egypt which they had brought with them.  The dough of the cakes was unleavened because they were thrust out of Egypt, and could not delay their departure, neither had they made any provisions for themselves (Exodus 12:39).  The Israelites left Egypt in such a hurry they could not even wait for their cakes to leaven.  We eat unleavened bread as a remembrance to this event. 

30. Resting on the first day of Passover

By this injunction we are commanded to rest on the first day of Passover.  It is contained in His words  ‘In the first day ye shall have a holy convocation’ (Lev. 23:7).  You should know at the outset that wherever the Lord has ordained ‘a holy convocation’, this is interpreted as meaning that the day is to be keep holy, which means that no manner of work is to be done on it except what is concerned with [the preparation of] food, as Scripture explains (Exodus 12:16).  ‘Solemn rest’ [which is associated with ‘a holy convocation’] amounts to a Positive Commandment, as though He had said ‘rest’, or ‘you shall rest’, which are modes of enjoining abstention from work.  All the days of the ‘appointed seasons’, that is, the festivals, are called Sabbaths of the Lord (Lev 23:38).

It is stated in many places that ‘there is a Positive and a Negative Commandment in respect of Festivals’ that is to say, to abstain from work on every festival is a Positive Commandment, and to do work which is forbidden on a festival is [a violation of] a Negative Commandment.  Accordingly, anyone who does forbidden work (on a festival) violates both a Positive and a Negative Commandment.

31. Resting on the seventh day of Passover

By this injunction we are commanded to rest on the seventh day of Passover.  It is contained in His words:  In the seventh day is a holy convocation (Lev 23:8). 

32. Counting the Omer

This Commandment is only binding on men and not women.

By this injunction we are commanded to count [the forty-nine days of] the Omer.  It is contained in His words:  Ye shall count unto you from the morrow after the day of rest, [from the day that ye brought the sheaf of the waving:  seven weeks shall there be complete (Lev 23:15).  Before the new harvest could be eaten, a sheaf of barley had first to be reaped and the flour thereof offered as a meal offering in the Sanctuary on the second day of Passover. 

‘The Feast of Weeks is the anniversary of the Revelation on Mount Sinai.  In order to emphasize the importance of this day, we count the days that pass from the preceding festival, just as one who expects his most intimate friend on a certain day counts the days and even the hours until their arrival.  This is the reason why we count the days that pass from the offering of the Omer, between the anniversary of our departure from Egypt and the anniversary of the giving of the Commandments on Mount Sinai. 

33. Resting on Shevuoth or the Feast of Weeks

By this injunction we are commanded to rest on the holiday of Shevuoth.  It is contained in His words:  Ye shall make proclamation on the selfsame day; there shall be a holy convocation unto you (Lev 23:21).

Note:  According to Tradition this festival commemorates the Revelation of Mount Sinai, which was ‘the aim and object of the Exodus from Egypt’.  It begins at sundown on the fifth day of Sivan and lasts until sundown the seventh day of Sivan.

34. Resting on Rosh Hashanah

By this injunction we are commanded to rest on the first day of Tishri or the first day of the seventh month of the Jewish calendar.  It is contained in His words:  In the seventh month, in the first day of the month, shall be a solemn rest unto you (Lev. 23:24).

We have already mentioned that ‘solemn rest’, amounts to a Positive Commandment.

According to Tradition:  On New Year’s Day all that are in the world pass before Him like flocks of sheep but final judgment is not passed until the Day of Atonement.  Thus:  On the first day of the year it is inscribed, and on the Day of Atonement the decree is sealed, how many shall pass away and how many shall be born; who shall live and who shall die. . . who shall be brought low and who shall be upraised.

35. Fasting on Yom Kippur or the Day of Atonement

By this injunction we are commanded to fast on the tenth day of Tishri or the tenth of the seventh month of the Jewish calendar.  It is contained in His words:  Ye shall afflict your souls, etc. (Lev 16:29).  This means affliction in respect of that on which life depends, that is to say, abstinence from eating and drinking.

Tradition also forbids washing, and marital intercourse [on the Day of Atonement], because Scripture says, It is a Sabbath of solemn rest unto you, and ye shall afflict your souls (Lev 16:31) which is equivalent to saying that abstention both from work of all kinds and from the nourishment and care of the body is obligatory, and therefore the expression shabbeth shabbathon—‘a Sabbath of solemn rest’—is used.

The object of the Fast of Atonement is evident.  The Fast creates the sense of repentance; it is the same day on which Moses came down [from Mount Sinai] with the second tablets, and announced to the people the divine pardon of their great sin; the day was therefore appointed for ever as a day devoted to repentance and true worship of God.  For this reason all material enjoyment, all trouble and care for the body, are interdicted; no work may be done; the day must be spent in confession; every one shall confess his sins and abandon them.

It should be noted here that the Day of Atonement atones only for transgressions between humankind and God.  For transgressions between a man and his fellow man the Day of Atonement does not effect atonement until he appeases his fellow man.  On the day preceding the Day of Atonement one must seek forgiveness of his fellow man. 

36. Resting on Yom Kippur or the Day of Atonement

By this injunction we are commanded to rest on the Day of Atonement from work of all kinds.  It is contained in His words:  It is a Sabbath of solemn rest unto you (Lev 16:31).

We have already explained several times that the expression ‘solemn rest’, amounts to a Positive Commandment.

37. Resting on the first day of Sukkoth or the Feast of Tabernacles

By this injunction we are commanded to rest on the first day of the Feast of Tabernacles.  It is contained in His words:  On the first day shall be a holy convocation (Lev 23:35).

The two festivals, Passover and the Feast of Tabernacles, imply also the teaching of certain truths and certain moral lessons.  Passover teaches us to remember the miracles God wrought in Egypt, and to perpetuate their memory; the Feast of Tabernacles reminds us of the miracles wrought in the wilderness.  The moral lesson derived from these feasts is this:  man ought to remember his days of want in his days of prosperity.  He will thereby be induced to thank God repeatedly, to lead a modest and humble life. We eat, therefore, unleavened bread and bitter herbs on Passover in memory of what has happened unto us, and leave our houses [on Tabernacles] in order to dwell in booths, as inhabitants of deserts do that are in need of comfort.

38. Resting on the Shemini Atzereth or the eighth day of the Feast of Tabernacles (Sukkoth)

By this injunction we are commanded to rest on the eight day of the Feast of Tabernacles.  It is contained in His words:  On the eighth day shall be a holy convocation unto you (Lev. 23:36).

You must know that the same law applies to each of the six [festival] days on which we are enjoined to rest, and none of them is subject to a restriction which does not apply to the others, such as the first and seventh day of Passover, the Feast of Weeks, the New Year, and the first and eighth day of Tabernacles.  We are also permitted to prepare food on each one of them [provided it does not fall on the Sabbath].  Hence the same regulations regarding ‘rest’ apply to all the festivals.

It should be noted, however, that the resting enjoined for the Sabbath and the Day of Atonement involves all the abstentions [prescribed for the festivals] and many more besides, since on these two days we are not permitted to prepare food.  There are other things which we are permitted to do on a festival day but are forbidden to do on the Sabbath, although they are not concerned with the preparation of food. 

39. Dwelling in a booth during Sukkoth or the Feast of Tabernacles

This commandment is only binding for men and not women.

By this injunction we are commanded to dwell in a booth seven days, throughout the Feast [of Tabernacles].  It is contained in His words:  Ye shall dwell in booths seven days (Lev 23:42).

The object of the Commandment is stated in Scripture thus:  That your generations may know that I made the children of Israel to dwell in booths, when I brought them out of the land of Egypt.  (Lev 23:43)

All cooked meals must be eaten in the booth throughout the festival, but anybody who lives on fruit and liquids, though he must partake of a cooked meal in the booth on the eve of the fifteenth day of Tishri, is under no obligation to eat in the booth thereafter.

The booth must be open to the sky, and is roofed only by leafy branches.

40.  Taking a Lulav or Palm branch on Sukkoth or the Feast of Tabernacles

This commandment is only binding for men and not women.

By this injunction we are commanded to take a palm-branch, and rejoice with it before the Lord one day a year on the first day of Tabernacles unless it falls on the Sabbath.  This injunction is contained in His words:  Ye shall take you on the first day [the fruit of goodly tress (by tradition a Citron) branches of palm-trees, and boughs of thick trees (by tradition Myrtle-branches) and willows of the brook, and ye shall rejoice before the Lord your God.  This act today is observed in memory of the destroyed Temple in Jerusalem.

‘And ye shall rejoice before the Lord your God (Lev. XXIII,40).  The joyfulness which one should manifest both in fulfilling a Commandment and in revealing his love of God, Who has enjoined them upon us, is an important aspect of worship.  He who keeps himself from partaking of this joyfulness merits retribution [by the hand of Heaven], and it is said, Because thou didst not serve the Lord thy God with joyfulness and with gladness of heart (Deut. XXVIII, 47); while he who indulges in vain glory, promoting his own honour and revelling in self-esteem on such occasions, is both a sinner and a fool.  It is against such conduct that King Solomon admonishes us [in the words], Glorify not thyself in the presence of God (Prov. XXV, 6.  [On the other hand,] he who humbles and belittles himself on these occasions is the one who is [truly] great and honoured, since he worships [the Lord] out of love.

41. Hearing the Shofar (Ram’s Horn) on Rosh Hashanah

This commandment is only binding for men and not women.

By this injunction we are commanded to hear the sound of the Ram’s horn [i.e. the shofar] on the first day of Tishri.  It is contained in His words:  It is a day of blowing the horn unto you (Num 29:1).

If the New Year falls on the Sabbath the Shofar may not be blown; and the same restriction applies to the preceding Commandment.  Custom lays down that four blasts be sounded daily (except on the Sabbath) on the Shofar at the conclusion of the Morning Services during the whole month of Elul, which precedes the New Year.

42. Heeding the Prophets

By this injunction we are commanded to hearken to every prophet and to do whatever he bids, even if it be contrary to one or more of the [Scriptural] Commandments, provided that is only temporary, and does not involve a permanent addition to or subtraction from [the Commandments].  The verse of Scripture in which he enjoins this is:  Unto him ye shall hearken (Deut 18:15).  Even if he tells you to violate temporarily one of the Commandments enjoined in the Bible you must listen to him.  Whoever transgresses this Commandment is liable to death by the hand of Heaven, as laid down in His words:  It shall come to pass, that whosoever will not hearken unto My words which he shall speak in My name, I will require it of him (Deut 18:19).

‘Three persons are liable to death by the hand of Heaven:  he who disobeys a prophet, a prophet who disobeys his own injunction (1 Kings 13:26) and [a prophet] who suppresses his prophesy.’ (Jonah 1:3).  All this is deducted from the words:  Whosoever will not hearken {lo yishma’) unto My words which he shall speak, etc.’ by reading lo yishma’ also as lo yishama’,’will not obey’ [applying to the prophet who disobeys his own injunction] and as lo yahmia’, ‘will not cause to be heard’ [applying to the prophet who suppresses his prophesy]. 

43. Abiding by a majority decision

In a private lawsuit—say in a case between Joe and Sam—should a difference of opinion arise among the judges of the [litigants’] city whether it be Sam that is liable or Joe, we have to accept the majority [opinion].  This injunction is contained in His words:  [Ye are] to follow after a multitude (Exodus 23:2).  [The rule that] the majority [decision is to be accepted] is Scriptural.

From the principle laid down in this Commandment scholars have also held a majority decision to be binding not only in matters affecting a court, but in all walks of public life.

44. Removing sources of danger from our habitations

By this injunction we are commanded to remove all obstacles and sources of danger from all places in which we live:  that is, to build walls or parapets around roofs, cisterns, trenches, and the like, so that nobody should fall into them or fall from them.  Likewise all dangerous structures must be rebuilt or repaired so as to remove all danger.  This injunction is contained in His words:  [When thou buildest a new house,] then thou shalt make a parapet for thy roof (Deut. 22:8).  This is a positive commandment.

Note:  An important feature of this Commandment is that, just as it makes it obligatory to remove all obstacles that might imperil other people’s lives, it equally imposes upon every one the obligation to safeguard one’s own life.

In like manner it is obligatory to remove and to guard against every obstacle which constitutes a threat to life or limb, taking exceeding great care in this matter, as it is said, [Only] take heed to thyself, and keep thy soul diligently (Deut. IV, 9).  He who exposes himself to any such dangers thereby fails to fulfill a Positive Commandment, and also transgresses [the Negative Commandment contained in the words], That thou bring not blood upon thy house (Deut. 22:8).

45. Charity

By this injunction we are commanded to give charity, to support the needy and to ease their lot.  This Commandment is expressed in various ways in Scripture, as, Thou shalt surely open thy hand unto thy poor and needy brother, (Deut 15:11) and again [And if thy brother be waxen poor…] then thou shalt uphold him (Lev 25:35) and yet again, That thy brother may live with thee (Lev 25:36).  The meaning of all these expressions is the same, namely, that we are to help our poor and support them according to their needs.

Even a poor man who lives on charity is under obligation to observe this Commandment; that is to say, he must give charity, however small in amount, to one who is poorer than himself, or as poor as himself.

Note:  ‘We are under obligation to be more heedful in the fulfillment of the Commandment to distribute charity than in that of any other Positive Commandment, since charity is the distinguishing mark of righteousness in the seed of Abraham, our father, as it is said.  For I have known him, to the end that he may command his children [and his household after him, that they may keep the way of the Lord], to do righteousness and justice (Gen. XVIII, 19).  In righteousness shalt thou be established (Isa. LIV, 14). The [obligation to effect the] ransom of captives is more important [to that of] supporting and clothing the poor, as they are in mortal danger.

46. Lending money to the poor

By this injunction we are commanded to lend [money] to a poor man so as to help him and ease his position.  This is a greater and weightier obligation than charity; for the poor beggar, whose need compels him to ask openly for money, does not suffer such acute distress in doing so as to one who has never yet had to do it, and whose need is for help which will save him from disclosing his poverty.  This injunction is contained in His words:  If thou lend money to any of My people, even to the poor with thee, etc. (Exodus 22:24).

Scripture further says:  Thou shalt surely lend him sufficient for his need (Deut. 15:18) [which proves that it is] an obligation, not merely a matter of option (Exodus 22:24).

In giving charity regard must be had for the self-respect of the recipient.  Greater is he who lends than he who gives, and greater than all is he who by lending helps a poor man to help himself’.  Scripture regarding this Commandment deals primarily with the alleviation of sheer poverty.

Moreover, he who withholds a loan from the poor in his hour of need becomes culpable in that he transgresses a Negative Commandment in addition to having neglected to fulfill a Positive Commandment. 

47. Loving our neighbour

By this injunction we are commanded that we are to love one another even as we love ourselves, and that a man’s love and compassion for his brother shall be like his love and compassion for himself, in respect of his money, his person, and of whatever he possesses and desires.  Whatever I wish for myself, I am to wish the like for him; and whatever I do not wish for myself or for my friends, I am not to wish the like for him.  This injunction is contained in His words:  Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself (Lev. 19:8).

All human beings having been created in the image of God.  It is incumbent upon us to show the utmost respect and love for one another, and it is most improper that one should humiliate or slight his neighbour.

48. Loving the stranger

By this injunction we are commanded to love the stranger.  It is contained in His words:  Love ye therefore the stranger (Deut 10:19).  Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself (Lev 19:18.  Ye shall not wrong one another (Lev 25:17), and then adds:  A stranger shalt thou not wrong (Exodus 22:20). One who wrongs a stranger is guilty on two counts:  Ye shall not wrong one another, and A stranger shalt thou not wrong.  Our obligation to love him similarly rests on both:  Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself, and Love ye therefore the stranger.

49. The law of weights and measures

By this injunction we are commanded to have just weights, scales, and measures, and to regulate them with extreme precision.  It is contained in His words:  Just balances, just weights, a just ephah, and a just hin, shall ye have:  [I am the Lord your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt] (Lev 19:36).  Just balances means that the scales must be absolutely true; just weights means that the weights must be absolutely true; a just ephah means that the ephah must be absolutely true; and a just hin means that the hin must be absolutely true.  The ephah is a dry measure, and the hin is a liquid measure.  The same rule applies in all these cases, even though the kinds of measures may change, because what is weighed or measured is simply the quantity of something.  All these kinds of things—scales, weights, dry measures and liquid measures—are called measures, and the Commandment instructs us to regulate each of them with precision according to the approved standard is called the Commandment pertaining to Measures.

The sin involved in the violation of this Commandment is more grievous than that of incest.  For in the case of forbidden intercourse, the sin being also against God, repentance is possible.  In cheating people, however, through the use of false weights and measures, one sins primarily against his fellow man, and owing to the impossibility of making restitution to the countless unknown victims his repentance is bound to remain imperfect.

50. Honouring scholars and the aged

By this injunction we are commanded to respect scholars and to rise before them in order to do them honour.  It is contained in His words:  Thou shalt rise up before the hoary head, and honour the face of the old man (Lev 19:32). ‘Thou shalt rise up…and honour—a rising up which will manifest honour.’

You must know that while this Commandment to respect Scholars is a duty incumbent on all alike, and even a Scholar is obliged to respect his equal in learning.  One’s duty to one’s teacher is greater than one’s duty to one’s father, whom one is insructed by Scripture to honour and to fear.

A student is forbidden to dispute with his teacher; and by disputing I mean opposing his decision, rejecting his opinion, and teaching and giving instruction without his permission.  He is also forbidden to quarrel with him, to speak angrily to him, or to judge him harshly, that is, to attribute evil motives to his acts or words:  for it is possible that [the teacher’s] intentions were not those [attributed to him].

The obligation to respect old age transcends the bounds of race or religion.

51. Honouring parents

By this injunction we are commanded to honour our parents.  It is contained in His words:  Honour thy father and thy mother (Exodus 20;12). 

What is honouring [one’s parents]?  Providing them with food and drink, clothing and warmth, and guiding their footsteps [when they are old and infirm]. 

The obligation to attend on one’s father and mother must be joyfully performed. 

The honouring of one’s father and mother is very dear in the sight of Him by whose word the world came into being.  For He declared honouring them to be equal to honouring Him, fearing them, equal to fearing Him, and cursing them equal to cursing Him’ (Ex. XX, 12).

52. Respecting parents

By this injunction we are commanded to fear our parents, to regard them with the deference due to one whose punishment we fear, and to treat them as we treat those of whom we are afraid and whose displeasure we dread.  It is contained in His words:  Ye shall fear every man his mother, and his father (Lev. 19:3).  What is fearing [one’s father]?  Not to sit in his seat, or to speak in his place, or to contradict his words.

53. ‘Be fruitful and multiply’

This commandment is only binding for men and not women.

By this injunction we are commanded to be fruitful and multiply for the perpetuation of the species.  This is the law of propagation and is contained in His words:  Be fruitful and multiply (Genesis 1:28)

And was not the world created solely that fertility and increase might be attained therein, as it is written, He created it not a waste; He formed it to be inhabited? (Isa, XLV, 18).  ‘The duty to be fruitful and multiply is laid on the man, not on the woman.’

Where husband and wife both deliberately refrain from having offspring, the husband is culpable, while the wife is exempt under the terms of this Commandment.  Only a man is under obligation to marry a woman capable of having children.  A woman is permitted to marry a sterile man if she wishes to do so.

54. The law of marriage

By this injunction a man is commanded to take a woman to wife [only] by a binding ceremony:  either by giving her something [of value], or by handing her a writ of marriage, or by intercourse [accompanied by a declaration of marriage].  This is the Commandment regarding the marriage ceremony.  Scripture indicates [the three ways of contracting a binding marriage] as follows:  When a man taketh a wife, and marrieth her, etc. (Deut. 24:1) teaches us that a woman can be acquired by intercourse.  And she departeth out of his house, and goeth and becometh [another man’s wife] (Deut. 24:2), so she can become a man’s wife by a writ [of divorcement].  And we learn that a woman can be acquired by money from His words [Then she shall go out for nothing], without money (Exodus 21:11).  This master receives no money [upon her leaving his authority], but there is another master who does receive money, namely, her father.’

Note:  In biblical times, when giving his daughter, while she was a minor, in marriage to a man, the father received the bride-money, but if his daughter was at least twelve years and six months old—the money was given to her.  Although betrothal by intercourse is ordained by the Bible, the usual practice today is betrothal by a ring, which is the equivalent of money.

Every man is obligated to give his wife a marriage contract, setting forth the amount payable to her in the event of the husband’s death or in the event he divorces her.

55. The bridegroom devoting himself to his wife for one year

This Commandment is only binding for men. 

By this injunction we are commanded that a bridegroom is to devote himself to his wife for a full year, in the course of which he is not to go on a journey, or on a war abroad, or to undertake any obligation of a like nature, but must rejoice with his wife for a full year from their marriage day.  This injunction is contained in His words:  He shall be free for his house one year, and shall cheer his wife whom he hath taken (Deut. 14:5)

Note:  This Commandment applies to all marriages excepting the case of one that remarries his divorced wife.

56. The law of circumcision

This Commandment is only binding for men. 

By this injunction we are commanded to be circumcized.  This injunction is contained in His words to Abraham:  Every male among you shall be circumcized (Genesis 17:10).  The Bible explicitly decrees extinction of the soul (Genesis 17:4) for any man who violates this Positive Commandment, in His words:  And the uncircumcized male who is not circumcized in the flesh of his foreskin, that soul shall be cut off [from his people].

Note:  Every uncircumcized Israelite becomes culpable and liable to extinction when he comes of age.  The father of the child does not incur this penalty for failing to bring his son into Abraham’s covenant, although the Father transgresses the same Positive Commandment.

The obligation to circumcize a son rests upon the father, and not the mother.

Great is circumcision, for despite all the religious duties which Abraham our father fulfilled, he was not called “perfect” until he circumcized himself, as it is written, Walk before Me, and be thou perfect’ (Gen. XVII, I).

‘There is, however, another important object in this Commandment.  It gives to all believers in the Unity of God, a common bodily sign, etc.  Circumcision is likewise the [symbol of] the covenant which Abraham made in connection with the belief in God’s Unity.  So everyone who is circumcized enters the covenant of Abraham to believe in the Unity of God, in accordance with the words of the Law, to be a God unto thee, and to thy seed after thee’ (Gen. XVII, 7).

The rite of circumcision, if performed on the eighth day after the birth of the child, as Scripturally provided (Gen. XVII, 12; Lev. XII, 3), overrides the Sabbath and all holidays.  If, however, it is delayed, for whatever reason, neither Sabbath nor festival may be violated in performing the rite. 

Karet or Being “Cut Off” in Torah

The first reference is Genesis 17:14, “Any uncircumcised male who is not circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin shall be cut off from his people; he has broken my covenant.”

What does it mean to be “cut off” from the people? A technical word for this is extirpation. While we’re throwing around fancy words, another way to talk about being cut off is excision. Excision. Extirpation. Excommunication. What is all this about? What things in Torah bring such a penalty? Is there any hope of forgiveness and release from such a penalty?

Causes of the Karet Penalty

Rabbi Jacob Milgrom categorizes and lists all the crimes in Torah that result in being cut off. The list is surprising. Offenses range from those which seem relatively minor (eating leaven during Passover week) to major (sacrificing children to Molech).

Here is a simplified breakdown based on Rabbi Milgrom, Leviticus 1-16, Anchor Bible, 458:

Sacred time. Not sacrificing the Passover (Num 9:13). Eating leaven during Passover (Exod 12:15, 19). Working on the Sabbath (Exod 31:14). Working or failing to fast on Yom Kippur (Lev 23:29, 30).

Sacred substance. Eating/drinking blood (Lev 7:27; 17:10, 14). Eating suet (organ fat, Lev 7:25). Misuse of holy incense (Exod 30:38). Misuse of holy oil (Exod 30:33). Eating sacrificial meat beyond the permitted time (Lev 7:18; 19:8). Eating sacrificial meat while impure (Lev 7:20-21). Levites entering sacred areas (Num 18:3; cf. 4:15, 19-20). Blaspheming or sinning with defiance (Num 15:30-31; cf. Lev 24:15).

Purification rituals. Neglecting circumcision (Gen 17:14). Neglecting purification after corpse contact (Num 19:13-20).

Illicit worship. Molech worship (Lev 20:2-5; Ezek 14:5). Necromancy (Lev 20:6). Slaughter/sacrifice outside the sanctuary (Lev 17:4, 9).

Illicit sex. Incestuous marriages (Lev 18:27-29).

What is Karet?

Theories could include the following:

(1) Death penalty.

(2) Death penalty for offender and his whole family.

(3) A divine decree of death (not actionable by the people) at certain age (some have suggested before the age of sixty or fifty-two).

(4) A divine decree of a premature and childless death.

(5) A divine decree of the ending of the family line (extirpation).

(6) Denial of afterlife (no “gathering to the ancestors”).

(7) Excommunication from the people.

Karet is not simply the death penalty. The death penalty is carried out by witnesses of a crime and the rest of the townspeople. The Molech worship passage in Leviticus 20:2-5 is an example of a person incurring two penalties: the death penalty and karet.

Neither is karet a death penalty for a person’s entire family. That sort of penalty is different. It is called kherem (the ban) and the most famous example is Achan (Joshua 7).

Psalm 109:13 is helpful: “May his posterity be cut off; may his name be blotted out in the second generation!” The phrase “cut off” is from the karet root. Milgrom also cites Ruth 4:10 and the fear that a person’s line of descendants might end up “cut off” through the death of those carrying on the name. Being cut off (karet) can happen naturally through deaths and does not have to be a divine penalty for a crime. Add also Malachi 2:12.

Extirpation, the end of a family line, is the likely meaning of karet. Those who commit crimes worthy of karet will, in a matter of generations, find their line coming to an end.

Yet it also may mean a denial of afterlife. The biblical language of a person being “gathered to his kin” or “ancestors” is arguably more than just a reference to burial (as it is used in some cases of people who were not buried in the family tomb). See Num 20:24; 27:13; 31:2; Gen 15:15; 47:30; Judg 2:10 for some examples of this language in the Bible which probably carries with it notions of afterlife.

As Milgrom points out, karet may very well be both denial of afterlife and a decree from God that a person’s family line will come to an end.

Are Karet Sins Forgivable?

The answer to this should be “obvious.”

There are many examples. One of my favorites is 2 Chronicles 30:17-20. The people have violated one of the stern commands with the penalty of karet. They have eaten the Passover in impurity. They have violated Leviticus 7:20-21 and probably for all of their lives they have violated Numbers 9:13 and Exodus 12:15, 19. Yet here is what we read:

For there were many in the assembly who had not sanctified themselves; therefore the Levites had to kill the passover lamb for every one who was not clean, to make it holy to the Lord. For a multitude of the people, many of them from Ephraim, Manasseh, Issachar, and Zebulun, had not cleansed themselves, yet they ate the passover otherwise than as prescribed. For Hezekiah had prayed for them, saying, “The good Lord pardon every one who sets his heart to seek God, the Lord the God of his fathers, even though not according to the sanctuary’s rules of cleanness.” And the Lord heard Hezekiah, and healed the people.

Israelites males must be circumcised in order to be saved

Circumcision is a sign of the special relationship between Israelite males, their father Abraham and the God of Abraham Isaac and Jacob. It was a sacred procedure that was performed at eight days old for boys that could be performed even on a Sabbath (Friday sundown to Saturday sundown) as per John 7:22-23. The seventh day is Friday sundown to Saturday sundown.

If your ancestors were from the United Kingdom (England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales), Spain, Portugal, France, Belgium, Holland, Northern Germany, Lombardi Italy, Iceland, Finland, Denmark, Norway and Sweden, you are an Israelite and are required to be circumcised today. The ordinance of circumcision is an outward sign of one’s willingness to obey the God of Abraham Isaac and Jacob’s laws and be one of His chosen people.

No male, whether Israelite or non Israelite, can eat the Passover meal unless they are circumcised.

48And when a stranger shall sojourn with thee, and will keep the passover to the LORD, let all his males be circumcised, and then let him come near and keep it; and he shall be as one that is born in the land: for no uncircumcised person shall eat thereof. 49One law shall be to him that is homeborn, and unto the stranger that sojourneth among you. (Exodus 12:48-49 KJV)And certain men which came down from Judaea taught the brethren, and said, Except ye be circumcised after the manner of Moses, ye cannot be saved. (Acts 15:1 KJV)

But there rose up certain of the sect of the Pharisees which believed, saying, That it was needful to circumcise them, and to command them to keep the law of Moses. (Acts 15:5 KJV)

Non Israelite males who become Christians by being baptised and thereby receiving the Holy Spirit do not need to be circumcised (Acts Chapter 15). Only Israelites males must be circumcised.

Even the Law acknowledged that circumcision alone was insufficient to please God, who specified the need to “circumcise your hearts” (Deuteronomy 10:16; cf. Romans 2:29).

Once Messiah Jesus comes back and touches down to earth, He will circumcise our hearts so that we will have the law constantly with us.

And the LORD thy God will circumcise thine heart, and the heart of thy seed, to love the LORD thy God with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, that thou mayest live. (Deut. 30:6 KJV).

The Sabbath

On every Friday at sundown when the Sabbath begins, one candle should be lite and placed at the dining table.  A cup of red wine or grape juice or beverage should be on the table along with a piece of bread in order to remember our Messiah Jesus and Redeemer and Savior. 

To be recited out loud:

The body of our Messiah Jesus, which was given for me, preserves my body and soul unto everlasting life.  I take and eat this bread in remembrance that Messiah Jesus died for me, and gives me nourishment of spirit and body though thanks giving and prayer.

The blood of our Messiah Jesus, King of Kings, which was given for me, preserves my body and soul unto everlasting life.  I take this cup and drink in remembrance that Messiah Jesus became the final sacrificial lamb for all of us, and I give thanks to the God of Abraham Isaac and Jacob for sending His son to all of the House of Jacob-Israel.

All Christians should be following God of Abraham Isaac and Jacob’s Commandments and Ordinances and Feast Days (Feast of Trumpets, Day of Atonement, Passover, etc).   Messiah Jesus only did away with the Ceremonial Law to do with the temple and sacrifices, as Messiah Jesus was the last and perfect sacrifice.  

57. A robber to restore the stolen article

By this injunction we are commanded [that a robber is] to return the actual article which he took by robbery if it is still available, with the addition of a fifth of its value, or to pay its equivalent in money if it has undergone [permanent] alteration.  This injunction is contained His words:  He shall restore that which he took by robbery (Lev. 5:23-24).

Note:  The law that a fifth is to be added applies if they have sworn a false oath in the matter.

58. Restoring a pledge to a needy owner

By this injunction we are commanded to restore a pledge to its Israelite owner whenever he is in need of it.  Where the pledge is something that he will need during the day – for example, the tools of this trade or occupation – it must be restored to him for the daytime, and held in pledge [only] at night; if it is something that he will need at night it must be restored for night, and held in pledge [only] in the daytime.

Note:  The reference in this Commandment is to restoring a pledge that has been taken from its owner after the loan was made.  Such a pledge can be obtained only through the Court.  The officer of the Court may not enter the debtor’s house to fetch it, but must wait outside until it is handed to him.  Where the creditor has obtained the pledge at the time the loan was made, he is under no obligation to restore it before payments of the debt.  In either case that creditor is forbidden to make any use whatsoever of the pledge without the express permission of the debtor.

59. Paying wages on time

By this injunction we are commanded to pay the labourer his hire on the same day [on which he has earned it], and not to delay it for another day.  This injunction is contained in His words:  In the same day thou shalt give him his hire (Deut. 14:15).  Under the provisions of this Commandment, a day-labourer may demand his wage at any time during the [ensuing] night, and a night-labourer at any time during the [ensuing] day, as I will explain in [the section dealing with] the Negative Commandments.

Note:  ‘The Law further ordains merciful conduct towards hired workmen because of their poverty.  Their wages should be paid without delay, and they must not be denied any of their rights; they must receive according to their work’.  

60. Assisting the owner in lifting up his burden

By this injunction we are commanded [to help a man] to load a burden if he is alone, after it has been

unloaded by us or by another.  Just as we are commanded to assist in unloading, so we are commanded to assist in loading.  This injunction is contained in His words:  Thou shall surely help him to lift them up again (Deut. 22:4).

61. Returning lost property to its owner

By this injunction we are commanded to restore lost property to its owner.  This injunction is contained in His words:  Though shalt surely bring it back to him again (Ex. 23:4).  In failing to return it one violates both a Positive and a Negative Commandment. 

62. Rebuking the sinner

By this injunction we are commanded to rebuke one who is sinning or is disposed to sin, to forbid him to act so and to reprove him.  A man may not say:  ‘I am not going to sin; and if another sins, that is a matter between him and God.’  If one chooses to sin, it is every man’s duty to reprove him and to prevent him, even thought there be no supporting evidence of his liability to punishment.  This injunction is contained in His words:  Thou shalt surely rebuke they neighbor, [and not bear sin because of him] (Lev. 19:17).

Included in this Commandment is [the obligation] on any who is injured by another to rebuke him, and not to bear him a grudge or entertain any evil thought of him.  We are commanded to rebuke [the offender] aloud, so that no [ill-feeling] against him shall be left in our heart.  Thou shalt surely rebuke [thy neighbor] – even a thousand times.  One might think that in rebuking him you may cause him shame, [and should therefore refrain]:  Scripture therefore says:  Thou shalt not bear sin because of him.

This Commandment is binding upon every person, so that even an inferior is under obligation to rebuke a man of high rank, and even if he is met with curses and insults, he may not desist or cease rebuking him. 

63. The Law of buying and selling

By this injunction we are commanded concerning the law of buying and selling:  that is to say, the procedure by which a sale is to be effected between the vendor and the vendee.  This procedure has been learnt from His words:  And if thou sell aught unto thy neighbor, or buy of thy neighbour’s hand, etc. (Lev. 25;14).    

Note:  If the buyer has drawn produce into his possession from the seller but has not paid him the money, he cannot retract; if he has paid him the money but has not drawn the produce into his possession from the seller, he can retract.

64. The Law of inheritance

By this injunction we are commanded concerning the law of inheritance.  It is contained in His words:  If a man dies, and has no son, etc. (Num. 27:8).   

A provision of this law is undoubtedly that the firstborn son inherits a double portion, this being one of the rules of the law of inheritance.

Note:  The order of inheritance by succession in cases of intestacy is as follows:  sons and their descendants precede daughters and their descendants; where no children have been left the father becomes heir; brothers and their descendants come next; sisters and their descendants follow; the father’s father and the father’s brother and their descendants, the father’s sisters and their descendants, and the great-grandfather and his descendants follow in that order.  A husband is his wife’s heir.  A wife, however, does not inherit her husband’s estate, although she receives her dower.  A bequest made by way of assigning inheritance to persons other than the proper heirs is null and void, but a bequest made by way of a gift is valid.   

If a man dies and leaves sons and daughters, and the estate is large, the sons inherit and the daughters receive maintenance; but if the property is small the daughters receive maintenance and the sons go begging.

Negative Commandments

1. Believing in, or ascribing any deity to any but Him

By this prohibition we are forbidden to believe in, or ascribe deity to, any but God.  It is contained in His words:  Thou shalt have no other gods beside me (Exodus 20:3).

Note:  This Commandment—the first of the Negative Commandments of the Decalogue—is of the very essence of faith.  Whoever permits the thought to enter their mind that there is in existence any deity beside this (God) transgresses a Negative Commandment. . . and denies the essence of religion, for this doctrine is the great principle on which everything depends.

Whoever transgresses this Commandment is an outright apostate, having neither merit nor portion in Israel.

There are three classes of heretics under the terms of this Commandment:  ‘One who says that there is a Sovereign Ruler, but His power is vested in two or more beings; one who says that there is no God, and that the world has no Sovereign Ruler; and one who worships any power beside God,  to serve as a mediator between himself and the Sovereign of the universe’.

2. Making images for the purpose of worship

By this prohibition we are forbidden to make images for purposes of worship; and there is no difference between making them ourselves and directing others to make them.  This prohibition is contained in His words:  Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image, etc.

Note:  Scripture goes to great lengths in enumerating the graven images that are forbidden (see Ex. XX, 4; Deut. IV, 15-19) ‘in order not to leave any excuse for claiming that they are permissible’ (Ex.  XX, 4).

3. Making an idol for others to worship

By this prohibition we are forbidden to make an idol even for others to worship, and at the bidding of an idolater.  It is contained in His words:  Nor make ye to yourselves molten gods (Lev 19:4). 

It is also said there:  ‘He who makes an idol for his own use transgresses two Negative Commandments.’  That is to say, he transgresses the prohibition against making it himself, even for the use of others, which is contained in this third Commandment, and also the prohibition against acquiring an idol and retaining it in his possession, even though another person made it for him, which is laid down in the preceding second Commandment.

Note:  The prohibitions against making any graven image for purposes of worship are an integral part of the doctrine of the Unity and Incorporeality of God as promulgated in religious thought.  The unflinching determination that Israel was to evince throughout the ages in upholding the validity of these prohibitions is illustrated by the account given by Josephus of the refusal of the whole nation to comply with an order of the Emperor Gaius that his statue should be set up in the Sanctuary at Jerusalem.  They told the Roman Commander ‘that if he would place the images among them, he must first sacrifice the whole nation; and that they were ready to expose themselves, together with their children and wives, to be slain’ (Josephus, Wars of the Jews II, X, 4).

4. Making figures of human beings

By this prohibition we are forbidden to make figures of human beings out of metal, stone, wood, and the like, even if they are not made for purposes of worship.  The purpose of this is to deter us from making images altogether, so that we should not think that they possess supernatural powers.  This prohibition is contained in His words:  Ye shall not make with Me—gods of silver, or gods of gold, ye shall not make unto you (Exodus 20:20). 

Note:  Figures of cattle and other living things—with the exception of man—and of trees and plants, and similar objects, it is permissible to make, even if the figures are in relief.  This prohibition also does not apply to paintings. 

5. Bowing down to an idol

By this prohibition we are forbidden to bow down to an idol; and it is clear that the term ‘idol’ means any object of worship other than the Lord.  This prohibition is contained in His words:  Thou shalt not bow down unto them, nor serve them (Exodus 20:5).  The intention is not to prohibit only the act of bowing down, to the exclusion of other [forms of worship]; only one of the modes of worship, namely, bowing down, is mentioned, but we are equally forbidden to sacrifice, [or pour a libation], or burn incense before an idol.

Sacrificing, which is included [among the forbidden acts], is here singled out for special mention to teach us the following lesson:  In the case of sacrifice, which is something that is performed in the worship of God, it is a sin [to perform it for an idol] whether [the idol] is ordinarily worshipped in that manner or not; so also in the case of any other act which is performed in the service of God, it is a sin [to perform it for an idol], whether [the idol] is ordinarily worshipped in that manner or not’ (Exodus 22:19).

Note:  ‘Acceptance of idolatry is tantamount to repudiating the whole Bible, the prophets and everything that they were commanded, from Adam to the end of time.  Included in this Commandment is the tossing of the blood of a sacrifice before an idol.’

6. Worshipping idols

By this prohibition we are forbidden to worship idols even in ways other than the four ways which are specified, bowing down, sacrificing, pouring a libation, and burning incense, provided that the manner of worship is the one in which the particular idol is ordinarily worshipped, e.g. excreting to [Baal] Peor (Num 25:3) or throwing a stone to Merkulis.  This prohibition is contained in His words:  Nor serve them (Exodus 20:5).  ‘Thou shalt not bow down unto them, nor serve them:  they are two separate and independent sins—offering a sacrifice and bowing down.’  Accordingly, one who throws a stone to [Baal] Peor or excretes to Merkulis is not guilty of sin, since these are not customary modes of worship to be included under His words [Take heed to thyself. . . that thou enquire not after their gods, saying:] ‘How used these nations to serve their gods?  even so will I do likewise’ (Deut. 12:30).

Wilful contravention of this Commandment is punishable by extinction [of the soul] and extinction is mentioned three times as punishment for idolatry.

It is prescribed once for [worshipping an idol in] the customary manner; once for [worshipping it in] a non-customary manner, and once for [the worship of ] Molech.  That is to say, one who worships any idol in any way whatever is liable to extinction, provided that the manner of worship is the customary one, such as excreting to [Baal] Peor, or throwing a stone to Merkulis, or removing one’s hair before Chemosh.     Chemosh was the national deity of the Moabite (1 Kings 11:7).  Similarly, one who worships any idol whatever in any one of the four specified ways is liable to extinction, even if the manner of worship is not the customary one , as if one sacrifices to [Baal] Peor, or bows down to Merkulis—which would be a ‘non-customary’ manner of worship.  The third [Scriptural mention of] extinction applies to one who causes his offspring to pass through the fire in the worship of Molech, as I shall explain [in connection with the next Commandment].

Negative Commandments 2, 5, and 6 should not be reckoned as distant Commandments, being merely explanatory of the precept Thou shalt have no other gods before Me (Ex. XX, 3), which forms the basis of Negative Commandment 1.  In this view the purpose of the prohibitions Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image (ibid., XX, 4), and Thou shalt not bow down unto them, nor serve them (ibid., XX, 5), is merely to teach us how to abstain from having ‘other gods’ before the Lord. 

7. Handing over some of our offspring to the Molech

By this prohibition we are forbidden to hand over some of our offspring to the idol known, at the time God gave us the Commandments, as Molech.  It is contained in His words:  And thou shalt not give any of thy seed to set them apart to Molech (Lev 18:21).

Note:  This form of idolatry consisted of kindling a fire and fanning its flame, whereupon [the father] would take some of his offspring and hand them over to the priest engaged in the service of that idol, and the priest would then cause the children to pass through the fire from one side to the other.

The prohibition of such conduct is repeated in His words:  There shall not be found among you any one that maketh his son or his daughter to pass though the fire (Deut 18:10).

The horror of idolatry throughout the ages may be gathered from the following Scriptural verses:  Take heed to thyself that thou be not ensnared to follow them. . . and that thou enquire not after their gods?  even so will I do likewise.’  Thou shalt not do so unto the Lord thy God; for every abomination to the Lord, which He hateth, have they done unto their gods; for even their sons and their daughters do they burn in the fire to their gods (Deut. XII, 30-31). 

8. Practising the sorcery of the ob (A medium)

By this prohibition we are forbidden to practice the sorcery of a medium, who, after burning a certain incense and performing a certain ritual, pretends that he hears a voice speaking from under his armpit, and answering his questions—this practice being a form of idolatry.  This prohibition is contained in His words:  Turn ye not unto the ghosts or spirits (Lev. 19:31). 

Note:  Another practice was to take a dead man’s skull, burn incense in it, then use arts of divination until one would seem to hear a voice come from under his arm-pit with reply’s to questions.

9. Practising the sorcery of the yidde’ oni (a “magical seer”)

By this prohibition we are forbidden to practice the sorcery of a yidde’oni, this likewise being a species of idolatry.  The yidde’oni takes the bone of a bird (or beast as exact meaning it unclear) called yido’a, puts it in his mouth, burns incense, recites certain prayers, and performs a certain ritual, until he in a condition akin to fainting and falls into a trance, in which he predicts the future.  The prohibition of this practice is in the words:  Turn ye not unto the ghosts, nor unto familiar spirits (yidde’oni) (Lev 19:31).  In speaking of the punishments incurred [by the violation of these prohibitions] He separates the two, saying ‘ob or yidde’oni’ (Lev. 20:27).  Punishment is the extinction of the soul for the willful violation of either. 

10. Studying idolatrous practices

By this prohibition we are forbidden to take an interest in idolatry or study its practices:  that is, to learn by enquiry the follies and superstitions taught by its founders, as for instance that a certain spirit can be brought down by such-and-such means, and will behave in such-and-such a way; or that if incense if burnt to a certain star, and the worshippers stand before it in such-and-such a position, it will act in a certain manner; and the like.  Merely thinking about these matters, and enquiring into these illusions, leads fools to frequent idols and worship them.  The Scriptural verse containing the prohibition of these practices is:  Turn ye not unto the idols (Lev. 19:4).  ‘If you turn after them you make them gods.  ‘[Turn ye not unto the idols]—turn ye not to see them.’:  that is to say, do not even look at the physical idol, or study its craftsmanship, so as not to spend a moment on anything connected with it.

This prohibition of thinking about idols is repeated in His words:  Take heed to yourselves, lest your heart be deceived, and ye turn aside and serve [other gods] (Deut. 11:16).  That is to say, if your mind falls into the error of thinking about idols, this will lead you to stray from the right path, and actually worship them. God further says on this same matter, Lest thou lift up thine eyes unto heaven, and when thou seest the sun and the moon and the stars, etc. (Deut 4:19).  For God does not forbid the mere raising the head and observing the heavenly bodies with the eyes; what he forbids is looking with the eye of the mind at what their worshippers attribute to them.  So also His words:  [Take heed to thyself. . . ] that thou enquire not after their gods, saying:  ‘How used these nations to serve their gods?  even so will I do likewise, (Deut. 12:30) are an admonition to us not to enquire after the manner of their worship, even though we do not worship them ourselves, because all this leads to going astray after them.

11. Erecting a pillar which people will assemble to honor

By this prohibition we are forbidden to erect a pillar which people will come together to honour, even though it be erected for the purpose of worshipping the Lord.  The reason [for this prohibition] is that we should not imitate the idolaters, whose custom it was to erect pillars and put their idols upon them.  This prohibition is contained in His words; Neither shalt thou set thee up a pillar, which the Lord thy God hateth (Deut. 16:22)

Note:  You will not find the expressions burning anger, provocation, or jealousy applied to God except in reference to idolatry:  ‘For I the Lord thy God am a jealous God (Ex. XX, 5).  Jealously do I exact punishment for idolatry, but in other matters I am merciful and gracious’.

12. Making figured stones upon which to prostrate ourselves

By this prohibition we are forbidden to make figured stones to prostrate ourselves upon, even if they be in the service of the Lord.  This also is prescribed in order that we should not imitate the idolaters, whose custom it was to set a beautifully sculptured stone before an idol and prostrate themselves upon it in worship.  His words are, ‘Neither shall ye place any figured stone in your land, to bow down unto it’ (Lev. 26:1).

13. Swearing by an idol

By this prohibition we are forbidden to swear by an idol even [in our dealings] with idolaters; nor may we cause them to swear by an idol: ‘You may not cause a heathen to swear by his deity’. (Exodus 23:13) This prohibition is contained in His words:  And make no mention of the name of other gods (Exodus 23:13) (meaning), ‘You may not cause the idolater to swear by his deity’.

And make no mention [of the name of other gods]—this means that one may not make a vow in the name of an idol’ (Exodus 23:13).

And make no mention (of the name of other gods)—this means that one may not say to his friend, Wait for me at the place of such-and-such an idol.

14. Summoning people to idolatry

By this prohibition we are forbidden to summon people to idolatry; that is, summon and incite people to worship idols, even if the inciter does not worship them and does nothing whatever except summon others to do so.  One who misleads a community is called a madiach, from His words;  Certain base fellows are gone out from the midst of thee, and have draw away (va-yedichu) the inhabitants of their city, saying, etc. (Deut. 13:14), one who misleads only an individual is called a meisith, from His words:  If thy brother, the son of thy mother. . . entice thee secretly, saying, etc. (Deut. 13:7).  In writing of the present Commandment we speak only of the madiach, the prohibition of whose action is contained in His words:  Neither let it be heard out of thy mouth (Exodus 23:13).

15. Seeking to persuade an Israelite to worship idols

By this prohibition we are forbidden to lead astray, that is, to seek to persuade an individual Israelite to worship idols.  The misleader is called a meisith, as explained above.  The prohibition is contained in His words:  And shall do no more any such wickedness as this in the midst of thee (Deut. 13:12).

Note:  The meisith and the madiach are among the class of sinners who God does not give any opportunity to repent. 

16. Loving the person who seeks to mislead him into idolatry

By this prohibition the one misled is forbidden to love those who seek to mislead him [into idolatry], or to hearken to them.  It is contained in His words:  Thou shalt not consent (toveh) unto him (Deut. 13:9).

From the general principle Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself (Lev. 19:18) one might think that we are commanded to love [the misleader]:  Scripture therefore says, Thou shalt not consent (toveh)  unto him (Deut. 13:9.

Note:  Toveh means to show affection.

17. Relaxing one’s aversion to the misleader

By this prohibition the one misled is forbidden to relax in his hatred of the meisith.  It is his bounden duty to hate him, and if he relaxes, he infringes a Negative Commandment.  This prohibition is contained in His words:  Nor shalt thou hearken unto him (Deut 13:9); which are explained thus:  ‘Since it is said, Thou shalt surely help him, (Exodus 23:5) one might think that we are commanded to help the meisith:  Scripture therefore says:  Nor shalt thou hearken unto him.’

Note:  the reason for the severe treatment accorded to the misleader is clearly stated in Scripture:  Because he hath sought to draw thee away from the Lord thy God (Deut. XIII, II). 

18. Saving the life of the misleader

By this prohibition the one misled is forbidden to save the life of the meisith if he finds him in danger.  It is contained in His words:  Neither shall thine eye pity him (Deut 13:9), which are thus explained:  ‘Since it is said, Neither shalt thou stand idly by the blood of thy neighbour (Lev. 19:16) one might think that one is forbidden to stand by when a meisith is in peril:  Scripture therefore says:   Neither shall thine eye pity him.’

19. Benefiting from ornaments which have adorned an idol

By this prohibition we are forbidden to benefit from ornaments with which an idol has been bedecked. It is contained in His words:  Thou shalt not covert the silver or the gold that is on them (Deut 7:25).  Coverings with which an idol has been arrayed are forbidden, and bases the prohibition on His words:  Thou shalt not covet the silver or the gold that is on them.

20. Increasing our wealth from anything connected with idolatry

By this prohibition we are forbidden to increase our wealth from anything connected with idolatry; on the contrary, we must shun it, its temples, and all its appurtenances.  This prohibition is contained in His words:  Thou shalt not bring an abomination into thy house.

21. Prophesying in the name of an idol

By this prohibition a man is forbidden to prophesy in the name of an idol; that is, to say that the Lord has commanded him to worship an idol, or that the idol itself has commanded him to worship it, promising reward [if he obeys] and threatening punishment [if he does not], as the prophets of Baal and those of the Asherah in biblical times.

22. Prophesying falsely

By this prohibition we are forbidden to prophesy falsely:  that is, to utter in the name of the Lord a prophesy which the Lord has not spoken, or has spoken to someone other than him who arrogates it to himself and says falsely that the Lord has spoken it to him.  This Negative Commandment is contained in His words:  But the prophet that shall speak a word presumptuously in My name, which I have not commanded him to speak, [or that shall speak in the name of other gods, that same prophet shall die] (Deut. 18:20).

Note:  Scripture tells us how to distinguish the false from the true prophet of God:  And if thou say in thy heart:  ‘How shall we know the word which the Lord hath spoken?’ When a prophet speaketh in the name of the Lord, if the thing follow not, not come to pass, that is the thing which the Lord hath not spoken (Deut. XVIII, 21-22).

‘As to calamites predicted by a prophet—as when, for example, he foretells the death of a certain individual or states that in a certain year there will be famine or war, and so forth—the non-fulfillment of his forecast does not disprove his prophetic standing. . . For God is long-suffering and abounding in kindness, and repents of the evil [He has threatened].  It may also be that [those who were admonished] repented and were forgiven, as happened to the people of Nineveh.  Possibly, too, the execution of the sentence is only deferred, as in the case of Hezekiah.  But if the prophet [in the name of the Lord] foretells good fortune, declaring that a definite event will come to pass, and the benefit promised is not realized, he is unquestionably a false prophet.  For no blessing decreed by the Almighty, even if promised conditionally, is ever revoked’.

23. Listening to the prophesy of one who prophesies in the name of an idol

By this prohibition we are forbidden to listen to the prophesy of one who prophesies in the name of an idol:  that is, we may not engage in controversy with him, or ask him questions, saying to him, ‘What is thy miracle and what is thy proof of this matter?’ as we should do in the case of one who prophesies in the name of the Lord.  When we hear a person prophesying in the name of an idol, we must warn him, just as it is our duty to warn every sinner.

The prohibition on this matter is contained in His words:  Thou shalt not hearken unto the words of that prophet (Deut. 13:4).

‘When [a prophet] is sent, a sign or miracle is given to him, so that the people may know that God has in truth sent him.  Now not every one producing a sign or miracle is on that account alone to be accepted as a prophet.  Only if a man, by reason of his wisdom or conduct, wherein he stands pre-eminent among his contemporaries, is already recognized as worthy of the prophetic gift, and his life, in its sanctity and renunciation, is favourable to the prophetic calling—then, when he produces a sign or miracle and asserts that God has sent him, it is our duty to listen to his message. . . A prophet who arises and declares that God has sent him does not need to show a sign like any of the miracles performed by Moses, Elijah or Elisha, all of which involved changes in the ordinary course of nature. It would be a sufficient sign for him if he foretold events that would happen and his predictions came true. . . If they fail in the smallest area, he is manifestly a false prophet.  But if everything he says comes true, then he must be accepted as trustworthy.  If all his words are found worthy of credence, he is a true prophet’.

The object of this Commandment is thus to prohibit us from engaging in controversy with a person who prophesies in the name of an idol, asking him for a miracle or a proof. And should he, on his own initiative, perform such a miracle, we are to pay no heed to it nor reflect upon it.  He who gives consideration to such miracles, thinking that possibly they are true, violates this prohibition

24. Adopting the habits and customs of unbelievers

By this prohibition we are forbidden to follow in the ways of the unbelievers and adopt their customs, even in their dress and their social gatherings.  This prohibition is contained in His words:  Ye shall not walk in the customs of the nations, which I am casting out before you (Lev. 20:23)  and is repeated in His words:  Neither shall ye walk in their statutes (Lev. 28:3).  I [the Lord] have prescribed only those things which have been laid down as statues for them and their ancestors.’ (Lev. 28:3)

Note:  ‘Neither shall ye walk in their statutes:  do not follow their social customs, the things which have become for them like statutes, such as [frequenting] theatres, circuses, and arenas—these being various kinds of assembly places where they would gather for purposes of idol-worship in biblical times.

25. Practising divination

By this prohibition we are forbidden to practice divination, that is, to use any of the various means of stimulating the faculty of conjecture.  The art of astrology is, indeed, akin to this [practice of divination], in that both are means of stimulating the faculty [of conjecture].  Hence no two individuals are alike in respect of the truth of their predictions, though many may be equal as regards their knowledge of the art [of astrology].

One who engages in any of these practices, or other customary practices of the same kind, is called a kosem, diviner; and the Lord says:  There shall not be found among you. . . one that useth divination (Deut 18:10).  ‘What is a kosem?  One who takes his stick in his hand and says’ [as though he were consulting it]:  “Shall I go, or shall I not go?”  It is concerning this type of divination, popular in those days, that the prophet said:  My people ask counsel at their stock, and their staff declareth unto them (Hosea 4:12).    

Note:  The basis of this Commandment is that people who believe in the art of the fortune tellers and all other forms of witchcraft fundamentally deny the principle of Divine Providence, believing that’ the Lord has abandoned the earth’.  We are to believe, on the contrary, that the Lord is the Supreme Ruler of the universe and of all powers therein, and even if the portents of the future indicate a certain event,  He may in His wisdom change it.  The miracles He has caused for our ancestors, as related in Scripture, and all other righteous people through the generations, sufficiently prove that we are not ‘the slaves of the stars’. 

26. Regulating our conduct by the stars

By this prohibition we are forbidden to regulate our conduct by the stars:  that is, we are not to say, ‘This day is auspicious for a certain enterprise, and we will undertake it’, or ‘This day is inauspicious for a certain enterprise, and we will refrain from it’.  This prohibition is contained in His words:  There shall not be found among you an observer of clouds (Deut. 18:10) and is repeated in His words:  Nor shall ye. . . observe clouds.  That is to say, there shall not be found among you a soothsayer who decides that one time is auspicious [for a particular action] and another is inauspicious.

Note:  This prohibition covers also deceit by optical illusion.  ‘Me onen’:  this covers a large number of tricks accomplished by sleight of hand, which deceives one into thinking that they see things which do not exist.  Thus they have their regular tricks, as when one takes a rope and before the eyes of the onlookers puts it away in the corner of his garment, whence he then brings out a snake; or he may throw a ring into the air, and then produce it out of the mouth of one of the persons standing before him.  All tricks of this kind are forbidden.

27. Practising the art of the soothsayer

By this prohibition we are forbidden to practice the art of the soothsayer [i.e. the art of divining by omens], as do some individuals who say:  ‘Since I have been interrupted on my journey, I will not be favoured with success’; or ‘The first thing I saw to-day was so-and-so:  I shall certainly make some profit to-day.’  . 

There shall not be found among you. . . one that useth divination, a soothsayer (menachesh) (Deut. 18:10).  It is repeated in the words:  Neither shall ye practice divination (tenachshu) (Lev. 19:26); ‘Menachesh:  like one who says, “The bread fell from my mouth”, “the stick fell from my hand”, “A snake passed me on the right”, or “A fox passed me on the left” (Deut. 18:10).

28. Practising sorcery

By this prohibition we are forbidden to practice sorcery.  The ochezet ha’ –ainayim merely makes it appear that he has done something, which in fact he has not done:  the mechashef on the other hand, actually practices witchcraft. It is contained in His words:  There shall not be found among you. . . a sorcerer (mechashef) (Deut. 18:10).

This prohibition includes those individuals that make it appear that they have done something that in reality they have not done as well as those individuals that actually practise sorcery.

Note:  Concerning the Commandments relating to sorcery, magic, astrology, etc.  These practices are all false and deceptive, and were employed by the ancient idolaters to deceive the people of various countries and induce them to become their followers.  It is not proper for Israelites to suffer themselves to be deluded by such inanities, or to imagine that there is anything in them. . . Whoever believes in these and similar things, and, in his heart, holds them to be true and scientific and only forbidden by the bible, is a fool.    

29. Practising the art of the charmer

By this prohibition we are forbidden to practice the art of the charmer:  that is, to recite charms which are supposed to have certain good or bad effects.  It is contained in His words:  There shall not be found among you. . . a charmer, (Deut. 18:10-11).  This relates to a charmer of snakes or of scorpions (Deut. 18:11), that is to say, he recites charms over them so that, as he fancies, they will not bite him, or, if already bitten, so as to deaden the pain. 

30. Consulting a medium to contact the dead

By this prohibition we are forbidden to consult a medium to contact the dead, and to seek information from him.  It is contained in His words:  There shall not be found among you. . . one that consulteth a ghost (sho’el ob) (Deut. 18:  10-11). 

31. Consulting a fortune teller to forecast future events

By this prohibition we are forbidden to consult a medium and to seek information about the future.  It is contained in His words:  There shall not be found among you. . . one that consulteth…a faimiliar spirit (yiddle’oni)  (Deut. 18:10-11).

32. Seeking information from the dead

By this prohibition we are forbidden to seek information from the dead—[by which is meant] those who are imagined to be dead, though they eat and have sensation—thinking that if one does certain things and dresses in a certain fashion, the dead will come to him in his sleep and answer his questions.  This prohibition is contained in His words:  There shall not be found among you. . . one that enquireth of the dead (doresh el ha-metim), ‘Doresh el ha-metim means one who starves himself and spends the night in a cemetery, so that the spirit of a demon may rest upon him.’

33. Women wearing men’s clothes or adornments

By this prohibition we are also forbidden to follow the customs of the heretics in respect of women wearing men’s clothes or adornments.  It is contained in His word:  A woman shall not wear that which pertaineth unto a man (Deut. 22:5).

Note:  This Negative Commandment includes the prohibition against women arming themselves for battle.

34. Men wearing women’s clothes or adornments

By this prohibition men are also forbidden to bedeck themselves with women’s adornments.  It is contained in His words:  Neither shall a man put on a woman’s garment (Deut. 22:5).  By this prohibition, men are also forbidden to dye their hair.

35. Imprinting any marks upon our bodies

By this prohibition we are forbidden to tattoo our bodies – in blue, red, or any other colour – after the manner of the idolaters.

The prohibition is contained in His words:  Ye shall not . . . imprint any marks upon you (Lev:  19:28). 

36. Wearing a garment of wool and linen together

By this prohibition we are forbidden to wear a garment woven of wool and linen, as the priests of the idols used to do in biblical times.  It is contained in His words:  Thou shalt not wear a mingled stuff (sha’atnez), wool and linen together (Deut. 22:11).  The term ‘woven’ as well in this Commandment means hackled, spun or woven together. 

37. Shaving the temples of our heads

This commandment is only binding for men and not women.

By this prohibition we we are forbidden to shave the temples of our heads.  It is contained in His words:  Ye shall not round the corners of your heads (Lev. 19:27).  The object of this prohibition also is that we should not imitate the idolaters, because it was their custom to shave off only their temples.  Shaving the entire head is not imitation of them [and therefore the prohibition does not apply to it].  . 

38. Shaving the beard

By this prohibition we are forbidden to shave the beard, which has five parts:  the upper right jaw, the upper left jaw, the lower right jaw, the lower left jaw, and the peak of the beard. The complete prohibition is contained in the words:  Neither shalt thou mar the corners of thy beard (Lev 19:27), because the whole is included in the term ‘beard’.  Scripture does not say ‘Neither shalt thou mar thy beard’, but Neither shalt thou mar the corners of thy beard, meaning that you may not shave even one corner of the whole beard, which according to Tradition consists of five ‘corners’ as detailed above.

Note:  This prohibition applies only to the marring of the beard with a razor;  there is nothing against cutting off the beard with scissors, tweezers, or plane-like or file-like tools.

39. Making cuttings in our flesh (includes body jewellery, rings and studs)

By this prohibition we are forbidden to make cuttings in our flesh, as the idolaters do.  It is contained in His words:  Ye shall not cut yourselves (Deut 14:1), and also in another form in His words:  Ye shall not make any cuttings in your flesh for the dead (Lev 19:28).

Note:  The rationale of  the Commandment is stated in Scripture as follows:  Ye are the children of the Lord your God:  ye shall not cut yourselves, nor make any baldness between your eyes for the dead.  For thou art a holy people unto the Lord thy God, and the Lord hath chosen thee to be His own treasure out of all peoples that are upon the face of the earth (Deut. XIV, 1-2). ‘Knowing that you are the children of the Lord, and that His love for you is even greater than that of a father [for his child], you should not mutilate your bodies for whatever He does to you, since whatever He does is for the best.  Even if you do not understand his ways, you should nevertheless trust in Him, even as the little ones who do not understand the ways of their father yet rely on him.’

This Commandment is a prohibition against giving way to excessive grief in case of a death in one’s family.

40. Permanently Settling in the land of Egypt

By this prohibition we are forbidden ever to settle in the land of Egypt, in order that we should not learn the heresy of the Egyptians or follow their customs, which are repugnant to the Bible.  This prohibition is contained in His words:  Ye shall henceforth return no more that way (Deut. 17:16).  It occurs three times in Scripture:  ‘In three places the Bible warns Israel not to return to Egypt; but three times they returned, and three times they were punished.  The first of the three warnings we have already mentioned; the second is contained in His words:  [And the Lord shall bring thee back into Egypt in ships,] by the way whereof I said unto thee:  ‘Thou shalt see it no more again’ (Deut. 26:68); and the third in His words:  Whereas ye have seen the Egyptians to-day, ye shall see them again no more for ever (Exodus 14:13).  Although [this third verse] according to its plain meaning is a statement, it is traditionally understood as a prohibition.

Note:  It is, however, permissible to traverse this area for purposes of commerce, or to pass through it on the way to another country.  The three times the Israelites returned to Egypt are as follows:  Ex. XIV, 13, ‘The first time was in the days of Sennacherib (see Isa. XXXI, 1). . . , the second time was in the days of Johanan, the son of Kareah (see Jer. XLII, 16). . . , the third time was in the days of Trajan.  These three times they returned to Egypt and on each of these three occasions they came to grief’ (Ex. XIV, 13). 

41. Accepting opinions contrary to those taught in the Bible

By this prohibition we are forbidden to exercise freedom of thought so far as to accept opinions contrary to those taught us by the Bible.  We are, on the contrary, to circumscribe our thoughts, and to raise a fence around them, which consists of the Positive and Negative Commandments of the Bible.  This prohibition is contained in His words:  And that ye go not about after your own heart and your own eyes, after which ye use to go astray (Num 15:39).  ‘And that ye go not about after your own heart—this means heresy, as it is said, And I find more bitter than death [the woman whose heart it snares and nets] (Ecc. 7:26).  And after your eyes—this means whoredom, as it is said, And Samson said unto his father:  [“Get her for me; for she pleaseth me well,”] (Judges 14:3) By ‘whoredom’ is meant pursuing physical pleasures and indulgences, and constantly thinking about such things.

It is not only idolatry to which we must not turn in thought.  We are likewise warned not to permit any thought to enter our minds, that might cause one to reject a fundamental principle of the Bible.  For the mind is limited; not every mind is capable of attaining knowledge of the truth in its purity.  If every man were to follow after the impulses of his heart, the result would be universal ruin, ensuing from the limitations of the human intellect.  How so?  Sometimes one will be drawn to idolatry.  Sometimes he will waver in his mind concerning the Unity of God. . . Sometimes he will harbour doubts concerning the Bible, as to whether it is of divine origin or not.  And such a person, being ignorant of the logical principles which need to be applied in order to attain positive truth, will lapse into heresy.  In this regard, the Bible exhorts us:  And that ye go not about after your own heart, etc.  This means “You shall not allow yourselves to be drawn each one after his own limited intelligence, to imagine that his mind is attaining truth.”

42. Showing mercy to idolaters

By this prohibition we are forbidden to show mercy to the idolaters, or to praise anything belonging to them.  It is contained in His words:  Nor shalt thou show mercy unto them, which is traditionally interpreted as meaning:  ‘Thou shalt ascribe no grace to them’. 

Note:  As to those nations whose religion is derived from the Bible and who believe in the Creator, in the Divine Revelation of the Commandments and in the sacredness of the Scriptures, we are enjoined to promote their welfare to the utmost of our ability, to intercede on their behalf in our prayers, and to behave towards them in all secular relations as if they were linked to our own faith.

43. Intermarrying with the heretics or race mix with Non-Israelites

By this prohibition we are forbidden to intermarry with heretics or all non-Israelites.  We are forbidden to race mix outside of the Tribes of Israel.  It is contained in His words:  Neither shalt thou make marriages with them (Deut. 7:3) and the term make marriages is thus explained:  Thy daughter thou shalt not give unto his son, nor his daughter shalt thou take unto thy son (Deut. 7;3).

The Lord will cut off the man that doeth this, the master and the scholar (Mal II:11-12).  This shows that if a man does those things, he is liable to extinction of his soul upon his death.

44. Destroying fruit-trees during a siege

By this prohibition we are forbidden to destroy fruit-trees during a siege in order to cause distress and suffering to the inhabitants of the besieged city (2 Kings 3:19).  It is contained in His words:  Thou shalt not destroy the trees thereof [‘by wielding an axe against them; for thou mayest eat of them], but thou shalt not cut them down (Deut. 20:19).  All [needless] destruction is included in this prohibition:  for instance, whoever burns a house, or destroys a barn needlessly, contravenes the prohibition:  Thou shalt not destroy.  This Negative Commandment includes the prohibition obstructing the flow of streams, rivers, etc., in order to cause distress to the inhabitants of a besieged city.] 

45. Forgetting what Amalek did to us

By this prohibition we are forbidden to forget what Amalek did to us and how he attacked us unprovoked.  This prohibition is contained in His words:  Thou shalt not forget (Deut. 25:19).  ‘Remember [what Amalek did unto thee] (Deut. 25:17)—by the spoken word, Thou shalt not forget—in thy heart (Deut. 25:19).  That is to say, we are not to relax our hatred of Amalek, nor are we to remove it from our hearts. 

46. Blaspheming the Great Name

By this prohibition we are forbidden to blaspheme the great Name [of the Lord].  This is what is called [euphemistically] ‘blessing the Name’.  Scripture expressly prescribes stoning as the punishment for contravention of the prohibition contained in His words:  And he that blasphemeth the name of the Lord, he shall surely be put to death; all the congregation shall certainly stone him.  But Scripture does not single out this sin for express prohibition; it is included in the general prohibition contained in His words:  Thou shalt not curse Elohim.  The term Elohim means both “God” and “judge”.  Thus we are prohibited from cursing a judge as well as our creator.  ‘In the words of Scripture, He that blasphemeth the name of the Lord, he shall surely be put to death, we hear the penalty for this sin; but we have not heard the prohibition of it.  Scripture therefore says [elsewhere], Thou shalt not curse Elohim.’ (Exodus 22:27).

47. Violating an oath

By this prohibition we are forbidden to violate an oath of utterance.  It is contained in His words:  Ye shall not swear by My name falsely (Lev. 19:12).

This means an oath by which we swear to do or not to do something which religion neither enjoins nor forbids.  We must fulfill an oath of this kind, and we are forbidden to violate it by the words:  Ye shall not swear by My name falsely.

Note:  What is a false oath?  Swearing that which is the reverse [of the truth, e.g. swearing that one has eaten, when one has not].

48. Swearing a vain oath

By this prohibition we are forbidden to swear a vain oath.  It is contained in His words:  Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain (Exodus 20:7).  It forbids us to swear that an existing object is not what it is in fact or that something exists which is impossible, or to swear to violate any of the Commandments of the Bible. Similarly, if one swears to a self-evident fact, which no educated person would deny or question, as for example if one swears by the Lord that whatever is slaughtered will die, this too is a case of taking the name of the Lord in vain.  In other words:  swearing that which is contrary to the facts known to man.

49. Profaning the Name of God

This prohibition is contained in His words:  Ye shall not profane My holy Name (Lev 22:32).

This sin embraces actions of three kinds, of which two are possible for anybody, and the third only for certain individuals.

The first kind of action, which is possible for anybody, is this.  Anyone who in a time of persecution is required to transgress one of the Commandments, whether his coercer has in mind to make him commit a lesser or a graver sin, or anyone who is required, even in a time when there is no persecution, to commit the sin of idolatry, or incest or bloodshed, must sacrifice his life and submit to death rather than transgress.  If he commits the sin and so escapes death, he profanes the Name and infringes this Negative Commandment; and if it happens in public, i.e. in the presence of ten Israelites, he profanes the Name publicly and sins against His words:  Ye shall not profane My holy name

Thus it has been made clear to you that one who worships idols under duress is not liable to extinction but he is guilty of profaning the Name. 

The second kind of action, also possible for anybody, is committing a transgression which, though not caused by lust or the desire for gain, shows indifference and laxity of behaviour.  A man who acts in such a way is also guilty of profaning the Name wherefore Scripture says, Ye shall not swear by My name falsely, so that thou profane the name of thy God (Lev. 19:12) because such a one show’s indifference, although he derives no material benefit [from his action].

The kind of action possible only for certain individuals is conduct by a man of known piety and righteousness which seems to the populace to be a transgression and to be unworthy of such a pious man, though it is in fact permitted.  Such conduct also is a profanation of the Name:  ‘What constitutes profanation of the Name?  If for instance I take meat from the butcher and do not pay him at once’.  He would thus learn to treat his debts dishonestly by delaying payment and then possibly omitting to pay altogether. 

This prohibition is also found elsewhere in the words of Scripture:  Neither shalt thou profane the name of thy God:  I am the Lord (Lev. 18:21).

Note:  If one profanes the name of God, repentance and the Day of Atonement together can secure suspension of judgment, and the day of death, with the suffering preceding it, does bring atonement for the sin (Ex. 20:7). 

50. Breaking down houses of worship

By this prohibition we are forbidden to break down houses of worship of the Lord, or to destroy books of prophesy, or to erase the Sacred Names, and the like.  This prohibition is contained in His words:  Ye shall not do so unto the Lord your God (Deut. 12:4).  Having commanded us to destroy the idols, to erase their names, and to demolish completely their temples and altars (Deut. 12:2-3)  He adds the prohibition, Ye shall not do so unto the Lord your God.

51. Leaving the body of a criminal hanging overnight after execution

By this prohibition we are forbidden to leave the body [of a criminal] after execution hanging overnight, so that the sight of it may not give rise to sacrilegious thoughts (Num 15:30) and (Deut. 21:23).  In biblical times, hanging was the punishment in the case of the blasphemer and the idol worshipper. 

Note:  This Commandment also prohibits allowing any dead body to remain unburied overnight, except where this is required by respect for the deceased, as where a coffin or shroud has to be provided, etc.

52. Any unclean person entering the camp of the Levites

By this prohibition every unclean person is forbidden to enter the camp of the Levites—the equivalent of which in later generations is the Temple Mount.  The Scriptural prohibition in this matter is contained in His words concerning one ‘who is unclean by reason of that which chanceth him by night’:  [Then shall he go abroad out of the camp,] he shall not come within the camp (Deut. 23:11).  ‘Then shall he go abroad out of the camp:  that is, out of the Camp of the Divine Presence’.  ‘He shall not come within the camp:  that is, within the Camp of the Levites.  Both refer to the Camp of the Divine Presence, [the expression being repeated] so that we should violate both a Positive and a Negative Commandment on its account.

He shall not come within the camp’:  this is a Negative Commandment. (Deut. 23:11).

Note:  One who is unclean by reason of contact with a dead body is not barred under the terms of this Commandment, whilst a leprous person is further barred even from the Camp of the Israelites (i.e. from the entire city of Jerusalem, as well as from all walled cities of the Land of Israel).

Since Jewish law considers the holiness of the Sanctuary and its Courts as enduring for ever, although they do not exist today, we are forbidden even to-day to enter the Temple Mount.  The approach to the Wailing Wall is from the opposite end of the mountain upon which the Temple stood.

53. Making oil like the Oil of Anointment

By this prohibition we are forbidden to make oil like the Oil of Anointment.  It is contained in His words:  Neither shall ye make any like it, according to the composition thereof (Exodus 30:32). 

The punishment for contravening this prohibition willfully is extinction of the soul, as Scripture indicates:  Whosoever compoundeth any like it. . . [he shall be cut off from his people] (Exodus 30:33)

Note:  The punishment of extinction was incurred for the willful violation of this Commandment only (1) where the oil of anointment was prepared with strict accuracy and precision, without any deviation from the Oil of Anointment which Moses prepared (see Ex. XXX, 22-25), and (2) where the transgressor intended to use it himself.  If his object in making it had been to turn it over to another person, he was not liable.

54. Making incense like that used in the Temple

By this prohibition we are forbidden to make incense like that used in the Sanctuary; that is to say, to make incense of the same ingredients, in the same relative weights, with the intention of burning it.  This prohibition is contained in His words:  [The incense which thou shalt make,] according to the composition thereof ye shall not make for yourselves (Exodus 30:37).

We are clearly told that whoever willfully violates this prohibition, by making similar incense with the intention of smelling it, is liable to extinction of the soul:  for He says, Whosoever shall make like unto that, to smell thereof, he shall be cut off from his people (Exodus 30:38).

55. Slaughtering the mother and her young on the same day

By this prohibition we are forbidden to slaughter the mother and its young on the same day, whether for a sacrifice or for ordinary food.  It is contained in His words:  [And whether it be cow or ewe,] ye shall not kill it and its young both in one day (Lev. 22:28).

Note:  ‘The one day spoken of in the law of “it and its young” means the day together with the preceding night’.  ‘It is prohibited to kill an animal and its young on the same day, in order that people should be restrained and prevented from killing the two together in such a manner that the young is slain in the sight of the mother; for the pain of the animals under such circumstances is very great. . . This law applies only to cattle and sheep, because of the domestic animals used as food these alone are permitted to us, and in these cases the mother recognizes her young’.

56. Redeeming the firstling of a clean beast

By this prohibition we are forbidden to redeem the firstling of a clean beast, so that it shall cease to be a ‘holy thing’.  It is contained in His words:  The firstling of an ox, or the firstling of a sheep, or the firstling of a goat, thou shalt not redeem; they are holy (Num 18:17).  The firstling may, however, be sold.

57. Delaying payment of vows

By this prohibition we are forbidden to delay [payment of] vows, freewill-offerings, and other offerings for which we are liable.  It is contained in His words:  When thou shalt vow a vow unto the Lord thy God, thou shalt not be slack to pay it (Deut 23:22); and according to Tradition one does not contravene this prohibition until three festivals [i.e. Passover, Feast of Weeks, and Tabernacles] have passed [without payment of the dues].

Note:  The Commandment applies also to charity which we have offered to give of our own free will; but the obligation must be fulfilled at once, otherwise one infringes the Commandment immediately, ‘since he is in a position to give, and there are always poor people to be found who will accept the gift.’

58. Infringing any oral obligation, even if undertaken without an oath

By this prohibition we are forbidden to infringe any obligation by which we have bound ourselves orally, even without an oath.  What is in mind here is a vow, as when one says, ‘If this or that happens’, or ‘If I do this or that’, I will not touch anything that grows in ‘the world’, or ‘in this city’, or ‘a particular kind [of food or drink]’ as for instance wine, or milk, or fish or the like; or again, if one says ‘I will renounce my conjugal rights’, or makes any other vow involving an obligation they are bound to fulfill that vow, and he is also forbidden to break their word by His words:  He shall not break his word, (Num 30:3) which are interpreted to mean:  ‘He shall not make his words profane’, (chullin)—that is to say, he shall not fail to fulfill what he has bound himself to do.  ‘Vows come under the prohibition:  He shall not break his word.’

He shall not break [his word] tells us that one [who does not keep his word] transgresses two prohibitions—He shall not break [his word], and Thou shalt not be slack [to pay it].’ (Deut. 23::22).  That is to say, if one vows an offering, or anything similar to an offering, as, for instance, a gift to a charity and has failed to fulfill his vow, after the passing of the three festivals [i.e. Passover, Feast of Weeks, and Tabernacles], he is liable under both Thou shalt not be slack [to pay it], and He shall not break [his word].

Note:  It is best to never make a practice of vowing, for ultimately you will trespass in the matter of oaths [and that would be to deny God, and so to commit mortal sin]. 

59. Tearing out our hair for the dead

By this prohibition we are forbidden to tear out the hair of our heads for the dead.  It is contained in His words:  Nor shall ye make any baldness between your eyes for the dead (Deut 14:1).

This prohibition is duplicated as regards priests in His words:  They shall not make baldness upon their head (Lev 21:5), in order to complete the statement of the law.  From the words:  between your eyes, we might have argued that the prohibition applied only to the front of the head; hence He explains it by saying:  They shall not make baldness upon their heads, thus showing that the prohibition applies to the whole head just as it does to the front.  Again, if He had said only, They shall not make baldness upon their head, we might have argued that the prohibition applied whether [it was done] for the dead or not; hence He explains it by saying for the dead. (Deut. 14:1).

Note:  Mourning for the loss of a relative (or any other person) is permissible only in the forms prescribed by the law.  To mutilate one’s body or tear one’s hair as a form of mourning is therefore an act of rebellion against the judgment of the Almighty which has been visited upon the family.

60. Eating any unclean animal

By this prohibition we are forbidden to eat an unclean domestic or wild animal.  It is contained in His words:  These shall ye not eat of them that only chew the cud, [or of them that only have the hoof cloven:] the camel, and the hare, and the rock-badger. . . and the swine.  (Deut. 14:7-8).

The eating of other unclean beasts is not expressly prohibited by Scripture, but from His words:  Every beast that parteth the hoof, and hath the hoof wholly cloven in two, and cheweth the cud, among the beasts, that ye may eat, we know that whatever does not possess these two characteristics is not permissible food.  This, however, is a case of a Negative Commandment derived from a Positive Commandment, which carries the force of a Positive Commandment. 

That ye may eat—that may be eaten, but the unclean beast may not be eaten.  This gives me only a Positive Commandment; whence do I know that there is also a Negative Commandment?  From the words of Scripture, These shall ye not eat of them that only chew the cud. . . [the camel. . . the rock-badger. . . the hare. . . and the swine] (Lev 11:4-7).  This tells me only that these [particular animals] are forbidden food; whence do I know that all other unclean beasts [are forbidden]?  I deduce it by analogy:  If these, which have one of the characteristics of a clean animal, are forbidden food, does it not stand to reason that we are forbidden by a Negative Commandment to eat other unclean animals, which have neither of the characteristics?  It is thus established that the camel, the hare, the rock-badger and the swine are [explicitly forbidden] by Scripture, while other unclean animals are also [forbidden]. 

61. Eating any unclean fish

By this prohibition we are forbidden to eat an unclean fish.  It is contained in His words:  regarding those kinds of fish, They shall be a detestable thing unto you; ye shall not eat of their flesh, etc. (Lev. 11:11).

62. Eating any unclean fowl

By this prohibition we are forbidden to eat an unclean fowl.  It is contained in His words regarding those kinds [of unclean fowl], These ye shall have in detestation among the fowls; they shall not be eaten (Lev. 11:13).

63. Eating any swarming winged insect

By this prohibition we are forbidden to eat any winged swarming thing, such as flies, bees, hornets, and similar insects.  It is contained in His words:  All winged swarming things are unclean to you; they shall not be eaten (Deut 14:19). 

64. Eating anything which swarms upon the earth

By this prohibition we are forbidden to eat anything that swarms upon the earth, such as worms, beetles and weevils, which are called ‘things that swarm upon the earth’.  It is contained in His words:  Every swarming thing that swarmeth upon the earth is a detestable thing; it shall not be eaten (Lev. 11:41). 

65. Eating any creeping thing that breeds in decayed matter

By this prohibition we are forbidden to eat any creeping thing which breeds in decayed or moldering objects, even though it belongs to no distinctive species, and is not produced by the union of male and female.  This prohibition is contained in His words:  Neither shall ye defile yourselves with any manner of swarming thing that moveth upon the earth (Lev. 11:44), “Any manner of swarming thing that moveth upon the earth—even though they do not produce offspring.’

Note:  This is the difference between His expressions, Every swarming thing that swarmeth upon the earth and Any manner of swarming thing that moveth upon the earth.  The creature that ‘swarms’ has the power of begetting offspring like itself, and multiplies upon the earth, whereas the creature that ‘moves’ breeds in decayed or moldering objects, and has not the power of begetting offspring like itself. 

66. Eating living creatures that breeds in seeds or fruit

By this prohibition we are forbidden to eat living creatures which breed in seeds or fruits, when once they have emerged and move about on the seed or fruit; and even if we find them afterwards in our food, we are not permitted to eat them.  This prohibition is contained in His words:  Even all swarming things that swarm upon the earth, them ye shall not eat; for they are a detestable thing (Lev. 11:42).  This includes also those which have been on the ground and have re-entered [the seed or fruit].

67. Eating any swarming thing

By this prohibition we are forbidden to eat any swarming thing whatever, without regard to whether it be a winged swarming thing, or a thing that swarms in the water, or a thing that swarms upon the earth.  This prohibition is contained in His words:  Ye shall not make yourselves detestable with any swarming thing that swarmeth, neither shall ye make yourselves unclean with them, that ye should be defiled thereby (Lev. 11:43).   Eating dead animals that have not been properly slaughtered

By this prohibition we are forbidden to eat an animal which has died of itself.  This prohibition is contained in His words:  Ye shall not eat of any thing that dieth of itself (Deut. 14:21)

NoteBlood and the flesh of an animal that has died of itself, are indigestible, and injurious as foods.

68. Eating the flesh of beasts that have not been properly slaughtered

By this prohibition we are forbidden to eat any flesh that is torn of beasts that were not properly slaughtered.  This prohibition is contained in His words:  Ye shall not eat any flesh that is torn of beasts in the field (Exodus 22:30).

Note:  This commandment prohibits us from eating the flesh of an animal torn by a wild beast, or by a wild bird; or the flesh of any injured or diseased animal which although ritually slaughtered, is known to be one which could not have lived more than a year; or flesh torn from a living clean beast.

69. Eating a limb of a living creature

By this prohibition we are forbidden to eat a limb of a living creature:  that is, to cut off a [whole] limb from a live animal or fowl and eat as much as an olive’s size of the limb in its natural condition [that is, together with its veins and sinews]; and even though there is only the smallest amount of meat on it.  The prohibition is contained in His words:  Thou shalt not eat the life with the flesh (Deut 12:23). ‘Thou shalt not eat the life with the flesh:  this refers to a limb of a living creature.’  He who eats a limb [severed] from a living creature, and also flesh [severed] from a living creature, is liable twice.’  The reason for this is that there are two prohibitions, of which the first, Thou shalt not eat the life with the flesh forbids eating a limb, and the second, Ye shall not eat any flesh that is torn of beasts in the field (Exodus 22:30) forbids eating the flesh of a living creature.

Note:  This prohibition occurs again, in another form, in His words to Noah forbidding the eating of a limb of a living creature:  Only flesh with the life thereof, which is the blood thereof, shall ye not eat (Genesis 9:4).

It is forbidden to cut off a limb of a living animal and eat it, because such an action would produce and develop cruelty; besides, the heathen kings used to do it; it was also a kind of idolatrous worship to cut off a limb of a living animal and eat it, in biblical times.

70. Eating the sinew of the thigh-vein

By this prohibition we are forbidden to eat the sinew of the thigh-vein.  It is contained in his words:  Therefore the children of Israel eat not the sinew (tendons) of the thigh-vein (Genesis 32:33).

71. Eating blood

By this prohibition we are forbidden to eat blood.  It is contained in His words:  Ye shall eat no manner of blood (Lev. 12:26).  It occurs several times in Scriptures, (Lev. 3:17 and Lev. 17:14) and it is expressly stated that the penalty for willful contravention is extinction of the soul:  Whosoever eateth it shall be cut off (Lev. 17:14). 

The Sect, Jehovah’s Witness, have interpreted this commandment to forbid blood transfusions (which is totally false).  Scientists believe that the longevity attributed to the patriarchs in Genesis was explicitly related to an ingested substance, most probably blood based.  This commandment is therefore prohibiting the use of any artificial means to enhance life spans.

72. Eating the fat of a clean animal

By this prohibition we are forbidden to eat the fat of a clean animal.  It is contained in His words:  Ye shall eat not fat, of cattle, or sheep, or goat (Lev. 7:23).  It also occurs again in Scripture (Lev. 3:17) and the punishment of extinction of the soul is explicitly prescribed for willful contravention of it. (Lev 7:25). 

73. Cooking meat in milk

By this prohibition we are forbidden to cook meat in milk.  It is contained in His words:  Thou shalt not seethe a kid in its mother’s milk (Exodus 23:19). 

Note:  It is prohibited because it is somehow connected with idolatry, perhaps forming part of the service, or being used on some festival of the heathens in biblical times.

74. Eating meat cooked in milk

By this prohibition we are forbidden to eat meat [cooked] in milk.  It is contained in the repetition of His words:  Thou shalt not seethe a kid in its mother’s milk (Exodus 23:19), the purpose of which is to forbid us to eat [meat cooked in milk].

His words:  Thou shalt not seethe a kid in its mother’s milk, occur three times in the Bible (Exodus 23:19, Exodus 34:19, and Deut 14:21).  Each of these prohibitions has a different purpose.  One forbids eating it, one forbids deriving any benefit from it, and one forbids cooking it.

Note:  One must abstain from milk, cream, ice cream, cheese and butter for six hours before or after partaking meat.

75. Eating bread made from the grain of the new crop

By this prohibition we are forbidden to eat bread made from the grain of the new crop before the end of the sixteenth day of Nisan.  It is contained in His words:  Ye shall eat neither bread, nor parched corn, nor fresh ears [until this self-same day] (Lev. 23:14).

Outside the Land of Israel, where both the fifteenth and sixteenth of Nisan are celebrated as holidays, the prohibition extends to the end of the seventeenth of Nisan.    

76. Eating roasted grain of the new crop

By this prohibition we are forbidden to eat roasted grain of the new crop before the end of the sixteenth day of Nisan.  It is contained in His words:  Ye shall eat neither bread, nor parched corn, nor fresh ears [until this selfsame day] (Lev. 23:14).

77. Eating fresh ears of grain

By this prohibition we are forbidden to eat fresh ears of grain before the end of the sixteenth day of Nisan.  It is contained in His words:  Ye shall eat neither bread nor parched corn, nor fresh ears, [until this selfsame day] (Lev. 23:14).

78. Eating the fruit of young trees

By this prohibition we are forbidden to eat the fruit of young trees during the first three years after they are planted.  It is contained in His words:  Three years shall it be as forbidden unto you; it shall not be eaten. (Lev 19:23).  This law applies to everywhere on earth.

Note:  [Idolaters had] made it a rule that the first-fruit of every fruit-tree should be partly offered as a sacrifice and partly consumed in the idol’s temple.  It was also a widespread belief that if the first-fruit of any tree was not treated in this manner, the tree would dry up. . . .  This Commandment, in opposition to this doctrine, commands us to burn the produce of fruit-trees the first three years; for some trees bear fruit after one year, while some begin to yield after two, and others after three years. . . As a rule a young tree in Israel bears fruit for the first time not later than the third year after it has been planted. 

79. Eating seed grown in a vineyard

By this prohibition we are forbidden to eat grain or vegetables planted in a vineyard.  It is contained in His words:  Lest the fullness of the seed be forfeited. 

Note:  ‘It was the custom of the people in biblical times to sow barley and grapes together, in the belief that it was the only way to make the vineyard prosper. Therefore the Commandment forbids us to use the seed that has grown in a vineyard, and commands us to burn both the barley and / or other produce as well as the grapes from the vineyard. 

80. Drinking libation-wine used in idol-worship

By this prohibition we are forbidden to drink libation –wine that has been used in connection with idol-worship.  This prohibition is not explicitly laid down in Scripture; but Scripture says of idol-worship:  Who did eat the fat of their sacrifices, and drink the wine of their drink-offering (Deut. 32:38), and this shows that the prohibition which applies to sacrifices offered to an idol applies likewise to libation-wine.

Note:  In a description of Israel’s lapse in Shittim into committing harlotry with the daughters of Moab (Num. 25:1), we read:  ‘[The Israelite] entered:  a gourd of Ammonite wine lay near her, and at that time Israel had not yet been forbidden heathen wine.  Said she to him, “Wouldst thou like to drink?” etc.’  The words ‘at that time Israel had not yet been forbidden heathen wine’ prove beyond doubt that afterwards it was forbidden.

Libation – wine is a wine that has been made expressly to offer to a God in idol-worship.

81. Eating and drinking to excess

By this prohibition we are forbidden to overeat or drink when we are young, under the conditions described in the case of a stubborn and rebellious son.  This prohibition is contained in His words:  Ye shall not eat with the blood, which actually means, ye shall not eat in such a way as to bring on yourselves the punishment of death (Lev. 19:26). 

82. Eating on Yom Kippur

By this prohibition we are forbidden to eat on the Fast-day of Atonement.  The Bible contains no express prohibition of this action; but it mentions the punishment, namely, that one who eats on that day is liable to extinction, in His words:  For whatsoever soul it be that shall not be afflicted in that same day, he shall be cut off from his people (Lev. 23:29) and consequently we know that eating on the Day of Atonement is prohibited.

Note:  One who eats on the Day of Atonement is included in the enumeration of those who are liable to extinction, and it is explained that every [prohibition for the violation of which] one is liable to extinction is a Negative Commandment, except in the case of the Passover offering and circumcision. 

A sick person is fed [on the Day of Atonement].

83. Eating leaven during Passover

By this prohibition we are forbidden to eat leaven or leavened bread or any product made of five kinds of grain or flour—wheat, barley, spelt, oats and rye—prepared in water and leavened during the Passover.  It is contained in His words:  There shall not leavened bread be eaten (Exodus 13:3).

Note:  That willful contravention of this prohibition is punished by extinction of the soul is clearly stated in His words:  For whosoever eateth leavened bread. . . that soul shall be cut off (Exodus 13:15).

Since a utensil in which leaven is cooked absorbs and retains some of the leaven, with the result that when other food is cooked in it the absorbed leaven imparts a flavour, it has always been customary to prepare food during the Passover in utensils set aside exclusively for Passover.  In accordance with Num. XXXI, 21-23, the ‘purification of utensils’, i.e. for ridding them of the leaven which they have absorbed, so that they can be used during the Passover. 

84. Eating anything containing leaven during Passover

By this prohibition we are forbidden to eat [during the Passover] anything containing an admixture of leaven or leavened bread or any product made of five kinds of grain or flour— wheat, barley, spelt, oats and rye—prepared in water and leavened and including anything that is not bread:  for example kutach, a preserve consisting of sour milk, breadcrusts and salt, all kinds of relishes, and the like such as muries or a mixture containing fish-hash, bread crusts and beer. This prohibition is contained in His words:  Ye shall eat nothing leavened (Exodus 12:20). 

The penalty [of extinction] is incurred for these:  Scripture therefore says, [For whosoever eateth that which is] leavened, [that soul shall be cut off] (Exodus 12:19):  [that is, the penalty is incurred] for leavened food, but not for food with an admixture of leaven.  Why then are these things mentioned at all?  [To teach us] that [eating them] is a breach of a Negative Commandment (Exodus 12:20).

85. Eating leaven after the middle of the fourteenth of Nisan

By this prohibition we are forbidden to eat leaven after the middle of the fourteenth day of Nisan.  It is contained in His words:  Thou shalt eat no leavened bread with it (Deut 16:3), in which the expression with it refers to the Paschal lamb, which we are obliged to slaughter on the fourteenth day [of Nisan], ‘at dusk’ or after 6:00 pm (Exodus 12:6).  [The meaning of ] His words is accordingly:  ‘Thou shalt eat no leavened bread from the moment when the time of the slaughtering [of the Passover offering] arrives.’

Note:  How do we know that one who eats leaven from six hours [i.e. noon] and onwards transgresses a Negative Commandment?  From the verse, Thou shalt eat no leavened bread with it.  From noon onwards (on the fourteenth of Nisan) we are bound by the Positive Commandment to destroy all leaven in our possession and this naturally includes the prohibition of eating leaven, since we are under obligation to remove and destroy it; but there is no specific Negative Commandment which applies to the fourteenth day of Nisan from noon onwards.

86. Leaven being seen in our habitations during Passover

By this prohibition we are forbidden for leaven to be seen in any of our habitations during all the seven days [of Passover].  This prohibition is contained in His words:  There shall no leavened bread be seen with thee, neither shall there be leaven seen with thee, in all thy borders (Exodus 13:7).

These are not two prohibitions, applying to two different matters, but relate to one and the same subject.  Scripture begins [the prohibition] with leaven and concludes it with leavened bread (Exodus 12:19) to teach us that leaven and leavened bread are the same:  that is to say, there is no difference between leaven and that which is leavened.

87. Possessing leaven during Passover

By this prohibition it is forbidden for leaven to be in our possession [during Passover], even if it is not seen and even if it has been deposited [with a heathen].  This prohibition is contained in His words:  Seven days shall there be no leaven found in your houses (Exodus 12:19).  ‘One transgresses [two prohibitions]:  “it shall not be seen”, and “it shall not be found”.’

Neither shall there be [leaven] seen with thee in all thy borders (Exodus 13:7) and, There shall no [leaven] be found in your houses.  It is explained there that each of these Negative Commandments derives something additional from the other; also, that one who allows leaven to remain in his possession during Passover transgresses two Commandments:  ‘it shall not be seen’ and ‘it shall not be found’.

Note:  The principle that leaven shall not be seen in our possession applies where it is in an open and visible place; if it is hidden, the offence is that of having it in our possession.

88. Sowing two kinds of seed

By this prohibition we are forbidden to sow diverse kinds of seed, as wheat and oats, in one field.  It is contained in His words:  Thou shalt not sow thy field with two kinds of seed (Deut. 22:9 and Lev. 19:19).  This is prohibited only in the Land of Israel.

Note:  This prohibition applies only to seeds fit for human consumption; and species of herbs which are used primarily for medicinal purposes do not come within the terms of this prohibition.

89. Sowing grain or vegetables in a vineyard

By this prohibition we are forbidden to sow grain or vegetables in a vineyard.  It is contained in His words:  Thou shalt not sow thy vineyard with two kinds of seed (Deut. 22:9 and Lev. 19:9).  One who allows grain or vegetables to grow in their vineyard infringes on two Negative Commandments.

This Commandment is Scripturally forbidden only in the Land of Israel.  However in the case of the grafting of trees [of diverse kinds], the prohibition of which is contained in His words:  Thou shalt not sow thy field with two kinds of seed, it is prohibited everywhere. 

90. Mating animals of different species

By this prohibition we are forbidden to mate animals of different kinds.  It is contained in His words:  Thou shalt not let thy cattle gender with a diverse kind (Lev. 19:9).  Any act which may cause animals to mate with an unlike kind is likewise forbidden.

91. Working with two different kinds of animals together

By this prohibition we are forbidden to work with animals of two different kinds together.  It is contained in His words:  Thou shalt not plow with an ox and an ass together (Deut. 22:10).  The word ‘together’ means that we may not join them together in any manner of work.

The purpose of this Commandment is to prevent us from causing unnecessary suffering to animals.  Since, for example, the ox is stronger than the ass, it is an act of cruelty to the latter to yoke them together. 

92. Preventing a beast from eating of the produce amidst which it is working

By this prohibition we are forbidden to prevent a beast from eating of the produce amidst which it is working; thus, if a beast is treading corn, or carrying straw on its back from place to place, we are not to prevent it from eating of the grain or the straw.  This prohibition is contained in His words:  Thou shalt not muzzle the ox when he treadeth out the corn (Deut. 25:4) and it is explained that the prohibition of muzzling applies equally to the ox and to all other beasts, but Scripture mentions only the common practice.  Whether the animal is treading corn or doing any other work, it must not be prevented from eating the produce amidst which it is working.

Note:  The object of this Commandment is to promote a kindly and humane attitude towards animals, so that one may be all the more disposed to act in a similar manner towards his fellow-man. 

93. Failing to give charity to our needy brethren

By this prohibition we are forbidden to fail to give charity and relief to our needy brethren, when we have become aware of their distressing circumstances and know that it is in our power to support them.  This prohibition is contained in His words:  Thou shalt not harden thy heart, nor shut thy hand from thy needy brother (Deut. 15:7).  This forbids us to behave in a miserly fashion to the point of failing to give to the deserving.

94. Demanding payment from a debtor known to be unable to pay

By this prohibition we are forbidden to demand payment from a debtor whom we know to be unable to pay.  It is contained in His words:  Thou shalt not be to him as a creditor (Exodus 22:24). 

Thou shalt not be to him as a creditor’ or do not emphasize that he is in your debt].

95. Lending at interest

By this prohibition we are forbidden to lend at interest.  It is contained in His words:  Thou shalt not give him thy money upon interest, nor give him thy victuals for increase (Lev 25:37).

This duplication of the prohibition of a single offence gives it added force, by making one who lends at interest guilty of infringing two prohibitions.  These are not two offences.  The only purpose of Scripture in mentioning each separately is [to teach] that one transgresses two prohibitions [by taking interest].

Hence one who lends money or provisions at interest transgresses two prohibitions, besides the other prohibitions which are also imposed on a lender for the sake of added force:  for this prohibition is duplicated in another form in His words:  Take thou no interest of him or increase (Lev 25:36). 

96. Borrowing at interest

By this prohibition the borrower also is forbidden to borrow at interest, because if there had been no prohibition imposed on the borrower, forbidding him to borrow at interest, we might have reasoned that only the lender sins, because he injures another, but the borrower, who only submits to being injured, commits no sin.  The case would then be similar to that of a wrong done [in buying or selling], where the perpetrator of the wrong sins, but not the victim.  For this reason a prohibition is also imposed upon the borrower, who is forbidden to borrow at interest in His words:  ‘Lo tashich le’achicha’ (Deut. 23:20), which Tradition explains as meaning:  Let not interest be taken from thee!  The actual translation is “Thou shalt not cause thy brother to take interest.”  ‘The borrower transgresses this Commandment and Nor shalt thou put a stumbling-block before the blind (Lev 19:14).    

97. Participating in a loan at interest

By this prohibition we are forbidden to take any part in a transaction between borrower and lender involving a loan at interest, whether as surety, witness, or notary drawing up the contract between them for payment of the interest on which they have agreed.  It is contained in His words:  Neither shall ye lay upon him interest (Exodus 22:24).

The surety and the witnesses transgress only Neither shall ye lay upon him interest.  The notary is on the same footing as the witnesses and the surety [in respect of transgression of the Commandment], Through His Commandment, neither shall ye lay upon him interest, applies in terms only to those who are accessory to the transaction, it includes the lender also, and consequently one who lends at interest transgresses six Negative Commandments:  one, Thou shalt not be to him as a creditor (Exodus 22:24); two, Thou shalt not give him thy money upon interest (Lev 25:37); three, Nor shalt thou give him thy victuals for increase (Lev. 25:37); four, Take thou no interest of him or increase (Lev. 25:36); five, Neither shall ye lay upon him interest; and six, Nor shalt thou put a stumbling-block before the blind (Lev. 19:14). 

Note:  The following transgress Negative Commandments:  the lender, the borrower, the surety, the notary and the witnesses. 

98. Oppressing an employee by delaying payment of his wages

By this prohibition we are forbidden to injure a labourer by delaying payment of his wages.  It is contained in His words:  The wages of a hired servant shall not abide with thee all night until the morning (Lev. 19:13).  This refers, as the words until the morning show, to a labourer hired by the day, who may demand payment of his wages at any time during the [ensuing] night; but a labourer hired by the night, who may demand payment of his wages during the whole night and the [ensuing] day, must be paid before sunset, in accordance with His words:  In the same day thou shalt give him his hire, neither shall the sun go down upon it (Deut. 24:15).  ‘A worker engaged by the day can collect [his wages] any time during the [following] night; one engaged by the night can collect [his wages] any time during the [following] day.’ 

These two verses do not contain two Commandments, but only one; and the purpose of the two prohibitions is to make the statement of the Commandment complete.  From the two together we know when is the time for payment [of wages].

Note:  It is only in the case of an Israelite hired labourer that one who delays payment of wages violates a Negative Commandment; in the case of a non-Israelite labourer, he transgresses the Positive Commandment, contained in His words:  In the same day thou shalt give him his hire (Deut. 25:15). 

99. Taking a pledge from a debtor by force

By this prohibition we are forbidden to take a pledge from a debtor by force, except by order of a judge and through his emissary.  We may not ourselves enter the debtor’s house against his will and take a pledge from him.  This prohibition is contained in His words:  Thou shalt not go into his house to fetch his pledge (Deut. 24:10).  If a man lends [money] to his fellow, he may take a pledge from them [when the debt matures] only through the Court, and he may not enter his house to take his pledge, for it is written,:  Thou shalt stand without, etc.’ (Deut. 24:11).

This Negative Commandment is juxtaposed to a Positive Commandment, which is contained in His words:  Thou shalt surely restore to him the pledge (Deut. 24:13).

Note:  Neither the emissary of the Court nor the creditor is permitted to enter the debtor’s house to take the pledge; they must wait for him to enter his house and bring it to them.  If the emissary of the Court meets the debtor in the street, he has the right to take the pledge from him by force; but not so the creditor, who must wait until the debtor gives it to him of his own free will. 

100. Keeping a needed pledge from its owner

By this prohibition we are forbidden to keep a pledge from its owner when he is in need of it; we must return an article used in the daytime during the day, and an article used at night during the night.  He must give back a pillow during the night-time and a plough during the day-time.  The relevant prohibition is contained in His words:  Thou shalt not sleep with his pledge (Deut. 24:12).  One must return to him what he cannot do without because of his poverty as explained in His words:  For that is his only covering, it is his garment for his skin (Exodus 22:26)

101. Taking a pledge from a widow

By this prohibition we are forbidden to take a pledge from a widow, whether she be poor or rich.  It is contained in His words:  Nor shalt thou take the widow’s raiment to pledge (Deut. 24:17). 

Note:  This Commandment applies likewise to the taking of a pledge from any woman, whether a widow or not. 

102. Taking in pledge food utensils

By this prohibition we are forbidden to take in pledge utensils which are used in the preparation of food, such as vessels for grinding, kneading, or cooking, implements for slaughtering cattle, and all other objects which are in the category of utensils with which necessary food is prepared.  This prohibition is contained in His words:  No man shall take the nether or the upper millstone to pledge; for he taketh a man’s life to pledge (Deut. 24:6).

One who takes in pledge a utensil with which necessary food is prepared infringes a Negative Commandment and one who takes in pledge many utensils, each of which is used in the preparation of necessary food—as, for instance, for grinding [corn], or for baking [bread], or kneading [dough] – is liable in respect of each one separately.

Note:  The precepts contained in the Commandments concerning the relation between lender and borrower will be found, on being carefully examined, to be nothing but commands to be lenient, merciful and kind to the needy, not to deprive them of anything indispensable in the preparation of food.

103. Abducting an Israelite

By this prohibition we are forbidden to abduct an Israelite including an infant.  It is contained in His words:  Thou shalt not steal (Exodus 20:15), Thou shalt not steal:  this is the prohibition of abduction. 

104. Stealing money

By this prohibition we are forbidden to steal money.  It is contained in His words:  Ye shall not steal (Lev. 19:11).  Ye shall not steal:  this is the prohibition of stealing money (Exodus 20:13).

One who infringes this prohibition must pay in accordance with what Scripture prescribes regarding two-fold restitution, or four-fold and fivefold restitution (Exodus 21:37) or returning only the principal. 

Note:  Since it is said with reference to theft, He shall pay double (Exodus 22:3), we know the penalty; but whence do you derive the prohibition?  From the words of Scripture:  Ye shall not steal.  [Stealing is forbidden] even if the purpose is to annoy, that is, even if the object is merely to vex the owner and cause him distress, [with the intention of] returning the stolen article] to him later. 

105. Committing robbery

By this prohibition we are forbidden to commit robbery, that is, to take by open force and violence anything to which we have no right.  It is contained in His words:  Nor shalt thou rob him (Lev 19:13). 

This Negative Commandment is juxtaposed to a Positive Commandment, which is contained in His words:  He shall restore that which he took by robbery (Lev. 5:23). 

106. Fraudulently altering land boundaries

By this prohibition we are forbidden to alter land boundaries fraudulently, that is, to shift landmarks between ourselves and our neighbours, so as to be able to claim another’s land as our own.  This prohibition is contained in His words:  Thou shalt not remove thy neighbour’s landmark (Deut. 19:14).  Thou shalt not remove thy neighbour’s landmark; but has it not already been said:  Nor shalt thou rob him?  (Lev. 19:13).  Why then add:  Thou shalt not remove [thy neighbour’s landmark]?  To teach us that one who encroaches on his neighbour’s land transgresses two Commandments.  I might think that this applies also outside the Land of Israel.  Scripture therefore says:  [Thou shalt not remove thy neighbour’s landmark. . . ] in thine inheritance which thou shalt inherit in the land.  In the Land of Israel one breaks two Negative Commandments, but outside it only one, namely, Nor shalt thou rob him (Deut. 19:14).

107. Usurping our debts

By this prohibition we are forbidden to usurp debts which are due from us, that is, to retain them and refuse payment.  It is contained in His words:  Thou shalt not oppress thy neighbour, nor rob him (Lev. 19:13). 

Stealing is the act of taking away the property of another by insidious and secret means, and it is forbidden in His words:  Ye shall not steal (Lev. 19:11).  Robbery is the act of taking the property of another by open force and violence, and is forbidden in His words:  Nor shalt thou rob him (Lev. 19:13).  Oppression occurs when you owe another a certain sum, that is to say, when you have in your keeping, and are responsible for, a sum of money which belongs to another, and you keep it and do not give it to him, whether you use force or do not use force.  Such conduct also is forbidden in His words:  Thou shalt not oppress thy neighbor.  This means wronging him in money matters, as for example, withholding the wages of a hired servant, and all similar actions.  The wages of a hired servant are given as an example only because they are definitely a debt due from you, though he has given you none of his money, and you have not received any money from him; this notwithstanding, because he has a definite claim against you, you are forbidden to withhold it from him.

The prohibition relating to this matter is duplicated, and this very case is given as an example, in His words:  Thou shalt not oppress a hired servant that is poor and needy (Deut. 24:14) meaning:  Thou shalt not oppress a hired servant, because he is poor and needy, as He goes on to say:  Neither shall the sun go down upon it, for he is poor (Deut. 24:15). 

Note:  The law is the same for one who wrongs [his fellow-man in money matters] as for a robber:  thus He says [If any one sin. . .] and deal falsely with his neighbour in a matter of deposit, or of pledge or of robbery, or have wronged his nighbour, (etc.) (Lev. 5:21). 

108. Repudiating our debts

By this prohibition we are forbidden to repudiate our debts or deposits entrusted to us.  It is contained in His words:  Neither shall ye deal falsely (Lev. 19:  11) which, it is explained, refer to money dealings.   

109. Swearing falsely in repudiating a debt

By this prohibition we are forbidden to swear falsely in repudiation of a debt due from us.  It is contained in His words:  Nor shall ye lie one to another (Lev 19:11).  For example:  one who falsely denies having received a deposit transgresses His injunction:  Neither shall ye deal falsely (Lev. 19:11); and if he further adds a false oath, he transgresses the injunction:  Nor shall ye lie [one to another].

Note:  That one who swears falsely in repudiation of a debt transgresses two Negative Commandments:  Ye shall not swear by My name falsely (Lev. 19:12) and Nor shall ye lie one to another.

110. Wronging one another in business

By this prohibition we are forbidden to wrong one another in the business of buying and selling.  It is contained in His words:  If thou sell aught unto thy neighbour, or buy of thy neighbour’s hand, ye shall not wrong one another (Lev. 25 14) ‘Ye shall not wrong one another:  this [refers to] wronging in money matters’ (Lev. 25:14). 

111. Wronging one another by speech

By this prohibition we are forbidden to wrong one another by speech, that is, by saying things which will wound and humiliate and cause them unbearable pain, as by reminding a person of youthful errors of which they have repented.  This prohibition is contained in His words:  Ye shall not wrong one another; but thou shalt fear thy God (Lev. 25:17).  This refers to verbal wrongs. 

112. Wronging a proselyte by speech

By this prohibition we are forbidden to wrong a proselyte by speech.  It is contained in His words:  A stranger shalt thou not wrong (Exodus 22:20). 

The prohibition concerning this matter is duplicated in His words:  Ye shall not do him wrong (Lev 19:33).   

A proselyte is someone who is converting to Christianity or Judaism.

113. Wronging a proselyte in business

By this prohibition we are forbidden to wrong a proselyte and cause him loss in buying and selling.  It is contained in His words:  Neither shalt thou oppress him (Exodus 22:20).  This commandment refers to money matters. (Exodus 22:20).

One who wrongs a proselyte [by speech] transgresses [two Negative Commandments]:  Ye shall not wrong one another (Lev 25:17) and A stranger shalt thou not wrong (Exodus 22:20) and one who wrongs him in money matters transgresses [the Commandment], Neither shalt thou oppress him, in addition to the prohibition in which they are included together with all Israelites, namely, that of wronging [any person] in money matters.

114. Dealing harshly with fatherless children and widows

By this prohibition we are forbidden to deal harshly with fatherless children, and widows.  It is contained in His words:  Ye shall not afflict any widow, or fatherless child.  (Exodus 22:21).

This prohibition includes harsh dealing whether by word or by deed.  We must speak to them very gently and kindly, treat them as well as we possibly can, show the most favourable disposition towards them, and set ourselves a very high standard in all these matters.  Whoever neglects any of these things violates this Negative Commandment.

God made a covenant with widows and orphans that when they cry out because of violence, they will be answered.  This applies only to cases where a person afflicts them for his own ends.  But if a teacher punishes orphan children in order to teach them, or lead them in the right way—that is permissible.  Yet they should not treat them like others, but should make a distinction in their favour.  They should guide them gently, with the utmost tenderness and courtesy, whether they are bereft of a father or of a mother, as it is said:   For the Lord will plead their case (Ps. XXII, 23). 

115. Afflicting one’s spouse

This prohibition is contained in His words:  Her food, her raiment, and her conjugal rights shall he not diminish (Exodus 21:10).  He must not cause her pain or distress in any way.

116. Planning to acquire another’s property

By this prohibition we are forbidden to occupy our minds with schemes to acquire what belongs to another of our brethren.  It is contained in His words:  Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour’s house (Exodus 20:14).  ‘Thou shalt not covet’:  I might think that the mere expression of a desire [is forbidden]:  Scripture therefore says, Thou shalt not covet the silver or the gold that is on them, nor take it unto thee (Deut. 7:25).  As in that case, so also in this case [the prohibition applies] only to putting the desire into practice.’ (Exodus 20;14).

Note:  It has thus been made clear to you that this Negative Commandment forbids us to scheme in order to acquire anything belonging to our brethren which we covet, even if we buy it and pay its full price.  Any action of this kind is an infringement of Thou shalt not covet

117. Coveting another’s belongings

By this prohibition we are forbidden to set our thoughts to covet and desire what belongs to another, because this will lead to scheming to acquire it.  The wording of the prohibition on this matter is:  Neither shalt thou desire thy neighbour’s house (Deut. 5:18).

These two Negative Commandments do not relate to one and the same subject.  The first, Thou shalt not covet (Exodus 20:14) prohibits the actual acquisition of what belongs to another; the second forbids us even to desire and covet it.  Here it says Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour’s house, and later on it says, Neither shalt thou desire thy neighbour’s house.  One thus incurs guilt by desiring alone and by coveting alone.  How do we know that if one begins by desiring, one will end by coveting?  Because Scripture says:  Neither shalt thou desire . . . neither shalt thou covet (Deut. 5:18).  How do we know that if one begins by coveting, he will end by robbing with violence?  Because Scripture says:  They covet fields, and seize them (Micah 2:2). 

The explanation of this is that if one sees a beautiful object in his brother’s possession, and he sets his heart on it and desires it, he infringes the prohibition contained in His words:  Neither shalt thou desire.  Then his love for the object will become stronger, until he devises some scheme to obtain it, and does not cease to beg and press the owner to sell it to him, or to give it to him in exchange for something better and more valuable; and if he succeeds in this, he thereby breaks another Commandment, namely Thou shalt not covet; since by his persistence and his scheming he has acquired a thing which the owner did not want to sell.  Thus he has broken two Commandments, as we have explained.  If, however, the owner, because of his love for the object, refuses to sell or exchange it, and the coveter because of his great craving for it proceeds to take it by force and compulsion, he also transgresses the Commandment:  Nor shalt thou rob him (Lev. 19:13).  Coveting is the root of robbery.

118. A hired labourer eating growing crops

By this prohibition a hired labourer is forbidden to eat of the growing crops among which he is working.  It is contained in His words:  But thou shalt not move a sickle unto thy neighbour’s standing corn (Deut. 23:26). 

It is known that this verse refers only to a hired labourer, and that His words:  When thou comest (Deut 23:26) mean, when a labourer comes or when they are hired.  These [labourers]  may eat [of that upon which they are employed] meaning corn or any other crop that requires a sickle to harvest.

One who works on growing crops, as for instance in reaping or cutting, is not permitted to eat until after his work is finished, that is, after the harvesting of the crop; but one who works on produce already gathered may eat before his work is finished. 

119. A hired labourer consuming excessively

By this prohibition a hired labourer is forbidden to take more of the growing crops among which he is working than he needs for his meal.  It is contained in His words:  [When thou comest into thy neighbour’s vineyard,] then thou mayest eat grapes until thou have enough at thine own pleasure; but thou shalt not put any in thy vessel (Deut. 23:25). 

120. Ignoring lost property

By this prohibition we are forbidden to shut our eyes to lost property; we must pick it up and return it to its owner.  This prohibition is contained in His words:  Thou mayest not hide thyself (Deut. 22:3).  We learn from this that [in failing to return it] one violates both a Positive and a Negative Commandment (Deut. 22:1).  [The obligation to] return lost property rests upon a Positive Commandment and upon a Negative Commandment.

This matter is referred to again in Deuteronomy, where there is a separate Negative Commandment in His words:  Thou shalt not see thy brother’s ox or his sheep driven away, and hide thyself from them (Deut. 22:1); Thou shalt not see. . . –this is a Negative Commandment; and further on it says:  ‘If thou meet [thine enemy’s ox or his ass going astray, thou shalt surely bring it back to him again (Exodus 23:4)—this is a Positive Commandment (Deut. 22:1).

Note:  This Commandment includes the prohibition against passing by a lost child or a person who has lost his way. 

121. Leaving a trapped person

By this prohibition we are forbidden to leave one who is trapped under his burden and delayed on the road; we must assist him by relieving him of his burden until he can adjust it, and must help him to lift it either upon his back or upon his transport, as is explained in the provisions of this Commandment.  The prohibition is contained in His words:  [If thou see the ass of him that hateth thee lying under its burden,] and wouldest forbear to help him, [thou shalt surely help with him (Exodus 23:5) ‘And wouldest forbear to help him, thou shalt surely help with him:  we learn from this that [in failing to render assistance] one violates both a Positive and a Negative Commandment.’ (Exodus 23:5).

There is in addition a separate Negative Commandment regarding this matter in His words in Deuteronomy:  Thou shalt not see thy brother’s ass [or his ox fallen down by the way, and hide thyself from them] (Deut. 22:4).  Thou shalt not see thy brother’s ass, (etc.):  this is a Negative Commandment’; and further on it says:  If thou see the ass of him who hateth thee:  this is a Positive Commandment (Deut. 22:4).

Note:  The Commandment under consideration applies equally if only the animal lies prostrate under its burden, and the master is not present.  Why then does the verse say, “Thou shalt surely help with him”?  To teach us that if the owner is at hand, and goes away and sits down, saying, “Since the obligation is upon you, you unload”, [the other person] is exempt from unloading, because it says with him.  If, however, the owner is an old man or is ill, [the other person] is obliged to load and unload alone’. 

122. Cheating in measurements and weights

By this prohibition we are forbidden to cheat in measuring land or to use false measures and weights.  It is contained in His words:  Ye shall do no unrighteousness in judgment, in meteyard, in weight, or in measure (Lev. 19:35) which Tradition explains as meaning:  Ye shall do no unrighteousness in measuring.  Ye shall do no unrighteousness in judgment:  if this refers to giving judgment, [it is redundant, for] it has already been said (Lev. 19:15).  Why then does it say here “in judgment”?  To teach us that he who measures is called “judge” (Lev. 19:35).

It also says there:  In meteyard which denotes land measurements (Lev. 19:35), that is to say, the measurement and calculation must be made in accordance with the strict rules of mathematics, with precision and with knowledge of the right methods; we must not proceed by baseless guesswork.

Weight’ includes both weights and scales. 

123. Keeping false weights and measures

By this prohibition we are forbidden to keep false weights and measures in our homes, even though we do not use them for purposes of trade.  It is contained in His words:  Thou shalt not have in thy bag diverse weights, a great and a small (Deut. 25:13) and this applies also to diverse measures (Deut. 25:14).

124. Bearing false witness

By this prohibition we are forbidden to bear false witness.  It is contained in His words:  Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour (Exodus 20:13) and it occurs again in another form, in the words:  [Neither shalt thou bear] false witness against thy neighbour (Deut. 5:18).  Thou shalt not bear [false witness] is an admonition against witnesses who purpose evil (Exodus 20:13).

Note:  He who bears false witness against his fellow man commits as grave a sin as if he had borne false witness against God, saying that He did not create the world (Exodus 20:13). 

125. Killing a human being

By this prohibition we are forbidden to kill one another, which means to kill an innocent person.  It is contained in His words:  Thou shalt not murder (Exodus 20:13). 

126. Neglecting to save an Israelite in danger of his life

By this prohibition we are forbidden to neglect to save the life of an Israelite whom we see in danger of death and destruction and whom it is in our power to save:  as for instance if a person is drowning, and we are good swimmers and can save him; or if someone is trying to kill someone, and we are in a position to thwart his intention, or to save the threatened person from harm.  In such a case we are forbidden to stand aside and refuse to come to the rescue by His words:  Neither shalt thou stand idly by the blood of thy neighbour (Lev. 19:16).

This prohibition covers also the case of one who withholds evidence, since he sees his friend’s money being lost and is in a position to restore it to him by telling the truth.  Scripture refers again to this matter:  If he do not utter it, then he shall bear his iniquity (Lev 5:1).

‘Whence do we learn that if you know any evidence favourable to [an accused person] you must not suppress it?  From the text:  Neither shalt thou stand idly by the blood of thy neighbour.  And whence do we learn that if you see one drowning, or attacked by robbers, you are bound to save him?  From the text:  Neither shalt thou stand idly by the blood of thy neighbour.  And whence do we learn that if one pursues his neighbour with intent to kill him, you are bound to effect his rescue [even] at the cost of [the assailant’s] life?  From the text:  Neither shalt thou stand idly by the blood of thy neighbour.’ (Lev. 19:16). 

Note:  The principle of this Commandment is that one is not to isolate himself from the community in which he lives, and be complacent in his own righteousness.  For if we have been admonished against standing idly by another’s property, which we could save from loss, we are all the more obliged not to look with indifference on the evil ways of our fellow-men, or to be heedless of the fate which will befall them. 

127. Leaving obstacles on public or private domain

By this prohibition we are forbidden to leave obstacles or hindrances on public or private property, so as not to cause fatal accidents.  It is contained in His words:  [When thou buildest a new house, then thou shalt make a parapet for thy roof,] that thou bring not blood upon thy house, [if any man fall from thence].  (Deut. 22:8).  Then thou shalt make a parapet, is a Positive Commandment, that thou bring not blood upon thy house, is a Negative Commandment (Deut. 22:8).

Note:  Whoever keeps on his premises anything dangerous, such as a vicious dog or a gun not under lock and key,  is in violation of this Commandment. 

128. Giving misleading advice

By this prohibition we are forbidden to give misleading advice.  Thus, if one asks your advice on a matter which you do not fully understand, you are forbidden to mislead or deceive him; you must give him what you consider the right guidance.  The prohibition is contained in His words:  Nor shalt thou put a stumbling–block before the blind (Lev. 19:14).  If one is “blind’ in a [certain] matter, and asks you for advice, do not give him advice which is not suitable for him.

Note:  This Negative Commandment also applies to helping or causing another to commit a transgression, because to do this is to aid and abet in his wrongdoing.  Goading a person into anger which might lead to the commission of a sin is also forbidden by this Commandment.  This Commandment also forbids a father to strike his adult son, as he is goading his adult son to commit the more serious crime of striking his father.   

129. Inflicting excessive corporal punishment

This Negative Commandment prohibits striking any Israelite whatsoever whether the blow be such as to result in a wound or not.  If we are forbidden to strike a sinner, how much more [are we forbidden to strike] any other person (Exodus 21:15).  God also forbids us to make as though we are to strike a person, even without actually striking him:  He who merely lifts his hand against his neighbour with intent to strike him is called “wrongdoer” as it is said:  He said to him that did the wrong:  Wherefore smitest thou thy fellow? (Exodus 2:13).

Note:  The prohibition against striking or wounding one’s self is also included under the terms of this Commandment, which includes suicide. 

130. Bearing tales

By this prohibition we are forbidden to bear tales.  It is contained in His words:  Thou shalt not go up and down as a tale-bearer among thy people (Lev. 19:16).  Another interpretation is:  Thou shalt not be a huckster, who carries his goods from place to place.

Note:  This Negative Commandment also forbids defaming [a bride].

131. Hating one another

By this prohibition we are forbidden to hate one another.  It is contained in His words:  Thou shalt not hate thy brother in thy heart (Lev. 19:17).   If, however, one reveals his hatred, and tells the hated person that he is his enemy, he does not violate this Negative Commandment, but he does transgress [the prohibition], Thou shalt not take vengeance, nor bear any grudge (Lev. 19:18) and he also violates the Positive Commandment which is contained in His words:  Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself (Lev. 19:18).  But hatred in the heart is the most grievous sin of all.

Note:  In order to prevent the nursing of enmity, when a man sins against another, the injured party should not hate the offender and keep silent, but must inform him, and say to him “Why did you do this to me?”  The bible objects to the harbouring of ill will.

132. Putting one to shame

By this prohibition we are forbidden to put one another to shame, which is called ‘whitening one’s neighbour’s face’ (i.e. shaming him in public).  The prohibition regarding this matter is contained in His words:  Thou shalt surely rebuke thy neighbour, and not bear sin because of him (Lev. 19:17).

Whence do we learn that even if one has rebuked a man four or five times he must go on rebuking him?  From the words of Scripture:  Thou shalt surely rebuke.  I might think that [this holds good] even when your rebuke causes him to change countenance:  Scripture therefore says, and not bear sin because of him (Lev. 19:17).  That is, though you rebuke him, you shall not expose him to shame by doing so in public or in unduly disrespectful terms, in which case you would bear sin because of him.  The plain sense of the verse, however, is that we are forbidden to retain any thought of his sin or to remember it.

Note:  It stands to reason that if when rebuking another (which we are under obligation to do) we are forbidden to put him to shame, we are all the more forbidden in time of strife and ill-will to “bear sin” because of our fellow-man by putting him to shame in public.

133. Taking vengeance on one another

By this prohibition we are forbidden to take vengeance on one another:  that is, if one has done us a wrong, we are not to insist on pursuing him till we have requited his evil deed, or hurt him as he hurt us.  These things the Lord forbids in His words:  Thou shalt not take vengeance (Lev. 19:18).

134. Bearing a grudge

By this prohibition we are forbidden to bear a grudge—that is, to bear in mind a wrong that somebody has done us and remember it against him.  This prohibition is contained in His words:  Thou shalt not take vengeance, nor bear any grudge (Lev. 19:18). 

Note:  As long as one nurses a grievance and keeps it in mind, he may come to take vengeance.  The Bible therefore emphatically warns us not to bear a grudge, so that the impression of wrong shall be quite obliterated and be no longer remembered.  This is the right principle, for it alone makes civilized life and social intercourse possible. 

135. Taking the entire bird’s nest

By this prohibition we are forbidden when hunting to take the entire bird’s nest, mother-bird and young.  It is contained in His words:  Thou shalt not take the dam with the young (Deut. 22:6).

This Negative Commandment is one that is juxtaposed to a Positive Commandment; Thou shalt in any wise let the dam go (Deut. 22:7).

136. Differing from traditional authorities

By this prohibition we are forbidden to differ from the authorized bearers of Tradition or to deviate from whatever they ordain in matters of the Bible.  It is contained in His words:  Thou shalt not turn aside from the sentence which they shall declare unto thee (Deut. 17:11). 

Note:  This Commandment is of general application, and forbids every Israelite to depart from any of the teachings, decrees, and customs of Tradition. It applies especially to a scholar who teaches Israelites to follow a path of conduct other than that outlined by the Bible itself.

137. Adding to the Written Law

By this prohibition we are forbidden to add to the written Commandments.  It is contained in His words:  Thou shalt not add thereto (Deut. 13:1). 

Note:  God knew that the Commandments will always require an extension in some cases and curtailment in others, according to the variety of places, events, and circumstances.  He therefore cautioned against such increase and diminution . . . for constant changes would tend to disturb the whole system of the Commandments, and would lead people to believe that the law is not of Divine origin. 

138. Detracting from the Written Law

By this prohibition we are forbidden to take away from the written law.  It is contained in His words:  Nor shalt thou diminish from it (Deut. 13:1).

139. Cursing a judge

By this prohibition we are forbidden to curse a judge which includes using the Tetragrammaton or any of the substitutes for the name of God.  It is contained in His words:  Thou shalt not curse ‘Elohim’ (Exodus 22:27).  Elohim implies both God and judges, (for God is a judge and will judge us).  The verse thus prohibits both reviling judges and blasphemy. 

140. Cursing an Israelite

By this prohibition we are forbidden to curse any Israelite.  It is contained in His words:  Thou shalt not curse the deaf (Lev. 19;14).

I will now explain the meaning of the term cheresh (deaf).

When a person is moved by a desire to revenge himself on one who has wronged him by inflicting upon him an injury of the kind which they believe they have suffered, they will not be content until they have requited the wrong in that fashion; and only when they have had their revenge will their feelings be relieved, and their mind cease to dwell on the idea.  Sometimes a person’s desire for revenge will be satisfied by merely cursing and reviling.  But sometimes the matter will be more serious, and they will not be content until they have completely ruined the other, whereupon they will be satisfied by the thought of the pain caused to their enemy by the loss of their property.  In yet other cases the matter will be more serious still, and they will not be satisfied until they have inflicted bodily injury upon them.  Or it may be even more serious, and their desire for revenge will not be satisfied except by the extreme measure of taking their enemy’s life and destroying their very existence.  Sometimes, on the other hand, because of the lightness of the offence, the desire for vengeance will not be strong, so that they will find relief in uttering angry curses, even though the other would not listen to them if they were present.

Now we might suppose that the Bible, in forbidding us to curse an Israelite, [was moved by] the shame and the pain that the curse would cause them when they heard it, but that there is no sin in cursing the deaf, who cannot hear and therefore cannot feel hurt.  For this reason, it tells us that cursing is forbidden by prohibiting it in the case of the deaf, since the Bible has regard not only to the one who is cursed, but also to the curser, who is told not to be vindictive and hot-tempered.

I am only told not to curse the deaf:  whence do I learn that one may not curse anybody?  From the words of Scripture:  Of thy people thou shalt not curse (Exodus 22:27).  It is to exclude [from the scope of the prohibition] the dead, who, though like the deaf [in being unable to hear and feel hurt], are unlike them in being to longer alive (Lev 19:14).

Note:  This commandment also forbids parents from cursing their minor children, thereby wounding their sensibilities.

141. Cursing parents

By this prohibition every one of us is forbidden to curse his parents.

The Bible clearly states the punishment [for violation of this prohibition] in His words:  He that curseth his father or his mother, shall surely be put to death (Exodus 21:17).  The relevant prohibition, however, is not clearly expressed by Scripture, for He does not say, ‘Thou shalt not curse thy father.’  But, as explained above, there is a prohibition against cursing an Israelite, and this includes one’s father among the rest.

Note:  The Bible is severe with respect not only to smiting or cursing a parent, but also to any act of contempt, for one who shows contempt for his father or mother even by mere words:  or by the slightest hint, is cursed by the Almighty.

142. Smiting parents

By this prohibition we are forbidden to smite our parents. 

In this case also there is no express prohibition in Scripture; but the punishment is mentioned in His words:  He that smiteth his father, or his mother, shall be surely put to death (Exodus 21:15).

Note:  He who strikes his father or his mother was, in biblical times, put to death on account of his great audacity, and because he undermines the constitution of the family, which is the foundation of the state.

143. Working on the Sabbath (Friday sunset to Saturday sunset)

By this prohibition we are forbidden to do any work on the Sabbath.  It is contained in His words:  In it thou shalt not do any manner of work (Exodus 20:10).  Scripture expressly prescribes the penalty of extinction of the soul for breach of this Negative Commandment.

Note:  The term ‘work’ embraces thirty-nine main categories of work forbidden on the Sabbath.  These are:  sowing, ploughing, reaping, binding sheaves, threshing, winnowing, cleansing crops, grinding, sifting, kneading, baking, shearing wool, washing or beating or dyeing it, spinning, weaving, making two loops, weaving two threads, separating two threads, tying (a knot), loosening (a knot), sewing two stitches, tearing in order to sew two stitches, hunting a gazelle, slaughtering or flaying it, salting it or curing its skin, scraping it or cutting it up, writing two letters, erasing in order to write two letters, building, pulling down, putting out a fire, lighting a fire, striking with a hammer, and taking anything out of one domain into another. 

144. Journeying on the Sabbath

By this prohibition we are forbidden to journey on the Sabbath.  It is contained in His words:  Let no man go out of his place on the seventh day (Exodus 16:29).  Tradition fixes the limit beyond which it is forbidden to go at two thousand cubits.  Even a single cubit more [is forbidden].  A cubit is 21:85 inches in length.

145. Working on the first day of Passover

By this prohibition we are forbidden to do work on the first day of Passover.  It is contained in His words:  No manner of work shall be done in them (Exodus 12:16) (Lev. 23:7).

146. Working on the seventh day of Passover

By this prohibition we are forbidden to do work on the seventh day of Passover.  It is contained in His words:  No manner of work shall be done in them (Exodus 12:16 and Lev. 23:8), that is, on the first and seventh days of Passover.

147. Working on Shevuoth or the Feast of Weeks.

By this prohibition we are forbidden to do work on Shevuoth.  It is contained in His words:  Ye shall do no manner of servile work (Lev. 23:21).

The purpose of the Commandments pertaining to the Festivals is that we should remember the miracles which occurred on those days, and take occasion to tell them to our children.  If the doing of work were permitted, the significance of these days would soon be forgotten.

148. Working on Rosh Hashanah

By this prohibition we are forbidden to do work on the day of the New Year.  It is contained in His words concerning that day:  Ye shall do no manner of servile work (Lev. 23:25). 

149. Working on the first day of the Feast of Tabernacles (Sukkoth)

By this prohibition we are forbidden to do work on the first day of the Feast of Tabernacles.  It is contained in His words concerning that day: Ye shall do no manner of servile work (Lev. 23:35).

Note:  Festivals are appointed for rejoicing and for such pleasant gathering as people generally need.  They also promote the good feeling that people should have for each other in their social and political relations. 

150. Working on the eighth day of the Feast of Tabernacles (Sukkoth)

By this prohibition we are forbidden to do work on the eighth day of the Feast of Tabernacles.  It is contained in His words concerning that day, Ye shall do no manner of servile work (Lev. 23:36).  No work is allowed on these days, namely, the first and seventh days of Passover, the Feast of Weeks, the New Year, and the first and eighth days of Tabernacles. 

Scripture states:  Save that which every man must eat, that only may be done by you (Exodus 12:16).

Note:  While preparation of the day’s necessary food is permitted on a Festival day, it is forbidden to prepare food for another day.  Hence if a Festival occurs on Friday, we are, strictly speaking, forbidden to prepare food for the Sabbath.  On the day preceding the Festival, one prepares a special dish (consisting of two items of food, such as bread and a piece of fish, etc.) for the Sabbath.  In this way ‘a blending’ of the Sabbath and Festival foods occurs, and this makes it permissible to prepare food on the Friday for the Sabbath. 

151. Working on the Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur)

By this prohibition we are forbidden to do work on the Day of Atonement.  It is contained in His words concerning that day:  Ye shall do no manner of work (Lev. 23:31).

One who willfully transgresses this Negative Commandment is liable to extinction of the soul (Lev. 23:30).

Note:  The Day of Atonement is the time of repentance for all, for the individual and for the community.  It is the culmination of the penitential season, appointed unto Israel for pardon and forgiveness.  Hence, all are under obligation to repent and to make confession on the Day of Atonement.

152. Having intercourse with one’s mother

By this prohibition a man is forbidden to have intercourse with his mother, even if she is not united in wedlock with his father.  It is contained in His words:  She is thy mother:  thou shalt not uncover her nakedness (Lev. 18:7). 

Note:  We are also forbidden to marry our grandmother, paternal as well as maternal.  Contravention of this prohibition is punishable by extinction of the soul.

153. Having intercourse with one’s father’s wife

By this prohibition we are forbidden to have intercourse with our father’s wife, even where she is not the transgressor’s mother, and even after the death of his father.  It is contained in His words:  The nakedness of thy father’s wife shalt thou not uncover (Lev. 18:8).

Note:  Contravention of this prohibition is punishable by extinction of the soul.

154. Having intercourse with one’s sister

By this prohibition a man is forbidden to have intercourse with his sister.  It is contained in His words:  The nakedness of thy sister, the daughter of thy father, or the daughter of thy mother. . . thou shalt not uncover (Lev. 18:9).

Note:  One who willfully violates this Commandment is liable to extinction of the soul.  A man may marry his sister’s or his brother’s daughter, basing their opinion on the words of the prophet, Hide not thyself from thine own flesh (Isa. LVIII, 7). 

155. Having intercourse with the daughter of one’s father’s wife if she be his sister

By this prohibition a man is forbidden to have intercourse with the daughter of his father’s wife, if she be his sister.  It is contained in His words:  The nakedness of thy father’s wife’s daughter, begotten of thy father, she is thy sister, thou shalt not uncover her nakedness (Lev. 18:11).

The purpose of this prohibition is to make a father’s wife’s daughter a separate forbidden relation, so that one who has intercourse with his sister by the same father, if her mother is married to his father, is guilty on two counts:  because she is his sister, and because she is the daughter of his father’s wife; just as a man who has intercourse with his mother is guilty on two counts:  because she is his mother, and because she is his father’s wife.

One who violates this prohibition by having intercourse with a sister, whose mother is married to his father, is liable to extinction of his soul.

Note:  It is permissible to marry a stepmother’s daughter by another husband, even though the children have been brought up together. 

156. Having intercourse with one’s son’s daughter

By this prohibition a man is forbidden to have intercourse with his son’s daughter.  It is contained in His words:  The nakedness of thy son’s daughter. . . thou shalt not uncover (Lev. 18:10).

157. Having intercourse with one’s daughter’s daughter

By this prohibition a man is forbidden to have intercourse with his daughter’s daughter.  It is contained in His words:  [The nakedness of thy son’s daughter,] or of thy daughter’s daughter, thou shalt not uncover; for theirs is thine own nakedness (Lev. 18:10).

Note:  This commandment also forbids marriage with a son’s daughter’s daughter, a son’s son’s daughter, a daughter’s daughter’s daughter, and a daughter’s son’s daughter.

158. Having intercourse with one’s daughter

By this prohibition a man is forbidden to have intercourse with his own daughter.

This prohibition is not explicitly laid down in Bible Scripture.  He does not say, ‘Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy daughter.’  The reason for this omission is that the prohibition is self-understood; for since intercourse with a son’s daughter or a daughter’s daughter is forbidden, it is obvious that intercourse with a daughter is forbidden.

Scripture says:  For theirs is thine own nakedness; and in prohibiting intercourse with a woman and her daughter, or with a woman and her son’s daughter, or with a woman and her daughter’s daughter.  It says:  They are near kinswomen; it is lewdness.  [From this we deduce that] just as in the prohibition of intercourse with a woman and her son’s daughter or her daughter’s daughter, intercourse with a man’s own daughter is also prohibited.

159. Having intercourse with a woman and her daughter

By this prohibition we are forbidden to have intercourse with a woman and her daughter.  It is contained in His words:  Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of a woman and her daughter (Lev. 18:17).

Note:  The act of marriage brings into force the following six unconditional forbidden relations:  the wife’s mother, her grandmother on her father’s or mother’s side, her daughter, her daughter’s daughter, and her son’s daughter.  These relations a man is forbidden to marry even after the divorce or death of his wife.

160. Having intercourse with a woman and her son’s daughter

By this prohibition we are forbidden to have intercourse with a woman and her son’s daughter.  It is contained in His words:  [Thou shalt not take] her son’s daughter (Lev. 18:17).  The transgressor is punished by extinction of the soul if he sinned willfully.

Note:  The Bible forbids a man to marry the daughter of his wife’s son’s son.

161. Having intercourse with a woman and her daughter’s daughter

By this prohibition it is forbidden to have intercourse with a woman and her daughter’s daughter.  It is contained in His words:  [Thou shalt not take. . . ] her daughter’s daughter (Lev. 18:17).  The transgressor is punished by extinction of the soul if he sinned willfully.

Note:  The Bible forbids a man to marry the daughter of his wife’s daughter’s daughter.

162. Having intercourse with one’s father’s sister

By this prohibition a man is forbidden to have intercourse with his father’s sister.  It is contained in His words:  Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy father’s sister (Lev. 18:12). 

Note:  The prohibition against marrying a father’s or mother’s sister applies whether she is a sister by the same father or by the same mother.  The transgressor is liable to extinction of the soul if he sinned willfully.

163. Having intercourse with one’s mother’s sister

By this prohibition a man is forbidden to have intercourse with his mother’s sister.  It is contained in His words:  Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy mother’s sister (Lev. 18:13).   

Note:  The willful transgressor of this Commandment is liable to extinction of the soul.

164. Having intercourse with the wife of one’s father’s brother

By this prohibition a man is forbidden to have intercourse with the wife of his father’s brother.  It is contained in His words:  Thou shalt not approach to his wife:  she is thine aunt (Lev. 18:14). 

Note:  The transgressor of this Commandment is liable to extinction.  The Bible also forbids a man to marry the wife of his father’s brother by the same mother, or the wife of his mother’s brother, whether by the same mother or by the same father.

165. Having intercourse with one’s son’s wife

By this prohibition a man is forbidden to have intercourse with his son’s wife.  It is contained in His words:  Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy daughter-in-law (Lev. 18:15). 

Note:  The penalty is extinction of the soul if he sinned willfully.  This law also forbids a man to marry his son’s or daughter’s daughter-in-law.

166. Having intercourse with a brother’s wife

By this prohibition a man is forbidden to have intercourse with his brother’s wife or with his brother’s widow, even if the two are only half-brothers.  It is contained in His words:  Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy brother’s wife (Lev. 18:16). 

Note:  The transgressor of this Commandment is liable to extinction of the soul if he sinned willfully.

167. Having intercourse with a sister of his wife during the latter’s lifetime

By this prohibition a man is forbidden to have intercourse with his wife’s sister during the lifetime of his wife.  It is contained in His words:  Thou shalt not take a woman to her sister. . . [in her lifetime]. 

The willful transgressor of this Commandment is liable to extinction of the soul.  Under the terms of this Commandment a man is not allowed to marry two sisters, nor to marry the sister of his divorced wife during the lifetime of the latter.

168. Having intercourse with a menstruant

By this prohibition a man is forbidden to have intercourse with a menstruous woman during the period of her impurity, that is, during the whole seven days.  It is contained in His words:  Thou shalt not approach unto a woman. . . as long as she is impure by her uncleanness (Lev. 18:19).  If she has not immersed herself [in a ritual bath] after the completion of the seven days, she remains a menstruant.

Note:  The willful transgressor of this Commandment is liable to extinction of the soul.

A menstruous woman is now under obligation to count seven complete ‘clean days’ after the cessation of the issue last seen, and only then is she to immerse herself in a ritual bath.  Thus the law of periodicity as it normally affects conjugal relations dictates a period of twelve days during which intercourse is prohibited.  “As will be readily recognized, the old Jewish plan of having twelve clear days after the beginning of menstruation before the next union is in almost exact harmony with the Law of Periodicity of Recurrence of woman’s desire.”  (‘Married Love’, by Marie C. Stopes, N.Y. 1932, p. 51).

169. Having intercourse with another man’s wife

By this prohibition a man is forbidden to have intercourse with another man’s wife.  It is contained in His words:  Thou shalt not lie carnally with thy neighbour’s wife (Lev. 18:20).

The prohibition of this transgression occurs elsewhere, in the Ten Commandments, in His words:  Thou shalt not commit adultery (Exodus 20:13), meaning that one is forbidden to have intercourse with another man’s wife:  Thou shalt not commit adultery, [The prohibition applying] both to the man and to the woman (Lev 20:10).  They did not find the prohibition in the words:  Thou shalt not lie carnally with thy neighbour’s wife, because that prohibition does not include both the adulterer and the adulteress, but is directed solely to the adulterer, [whereas the verse in the Ten Commandments is directed to both], since the word tin’af can be both second person masculine and third person feminine.  Similarly, as regards forbidden intercourse generally, they had to apply the prohibition to the woman as well [as to the man], and so we read:  ‘None of you shall approach [to any that is near of kin to him], to uncover their nakedness’ (Lev. 18:6).  This prohibits both the man through the woman, and the woman through the man. 

Note:  Causing or assisting illicit intercourse is also prohibited. 

170. Men lying with beasts

By this prohibition a man is forbidden to lie with a beast, male or female.  It is contained in His words:  Thou shalt not lie with any beast (Lev. 18:23). 

Note Scripture decrees the penalty of death for the beast (Lev. XX, 15-16) for Commandments #171 and #172. 

171. Women lying with beasts

By this prohibition women are forbidden to lie with beasts.  It is contained in His words:  Neither shall any woman stand before a beast to lie down thereto; [it is perversion] Lev. 18:23

172. A man lying carnally with a male

By this prohibition a man is forbidden to lie carnally with a male.  It is contained in His words:  Thou shalt not lie with mankind, as with womankind (Lev. 18:22) and it also occurs elsewhere, in His words:  Neither shall there be a sodomite of the sons of Israel (Deut. 23:18).  The correct view is that this Negative Commandment is repeated in order to give it added force, and is not the prohibition directed to the victim.  The words of Scripture:  Thou shalt not lie [with mankind, as with womankind] provide the admonition for both the parties. 

173. A man lying carnally with his father

By this prohibition a man is forbidden to lie carnally with his father.  It is contained in His words:  The nakedness of thy father. . . shalt thou not uncover (Lev. 18:7).  A man who lies carnally with his father is liable on two counts:  for lying carnally with a male, and for lying carnally with his father.

174. A man lying carnally with his father’s brother

By this prohibition a man is forbidden to lie carnally with his father’s brother.  It is contained in His words:  Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy father’s brother (Lev. 18:14). 

Note:  Now it is obvious that for all the above-mentioned sexual offences Scripture explicitly lays down the penalty of extinction of the soul, because after enumerating them it says:  Whosoever shall do any of these abominations, even the souls that do them shall be cut off (Lev. 18:29).  

175. Intimacy with a female blood relative

By this prohibition a man is forbidden to seek pleasure in contact with any kinswoman who is within the prohibited degrees, even though it does not go beyond such endearments as embracing, kissing and the like.  The prohibition of such conduct is contained in His words:  None of you shall approach to any that is near of kin to him, to uncover their nakedness (Lev18:6), which have the same meaning as if He had said:  ‘You shall not approach them in a way which might lead to forbidden intercourse.’  ‘[None of you] shall approach. . . to uncover their nakedness.  This prohibits only actual intercourse; whence do I know that “approaching” is forbidden?  From the words of Scripture:  Thou shalt not approach unto a woman [to uncover her nakedness], as long as she is impure by her uncleanness (Lev. 18:19).  This, however, prohibits only approaching a menstruous woman and having intercourse with her; whence do I know that the two prohibitions apply to all women within the forbidden degree?  From the words:  [None of you] shall approach to any that is near of kin.’ (Lev. 18:6).

Even the souls that do them shall be cut off, (Lev. 18:29).  Why is this said?  Because from the words:  [None of you] shall approach. . . I might think that one is liable to extinction of the soul for merely “approaching”.  Scripture therefore says:  [Even the souls] that do them [shall be cut off], but not the souls that merely approach them.’ (Lev. 18:29).

Note:  It is important for you to know that the offspring of intercourse is called ‘a bastard’.  Such offspring the Lord has called ‘a bastard’ or a ‘mazer” (Deut. 23:3) and whether the sin was committed willfully or unintentionally, the offspring is ‘a bastard’ or ‘a mamzer’.  The only exception is the offspring of intercourse with a menstruous woman:  in this case the offspring thereof is not a bastard, but is called ‘son or daughter of a menstruant’.  All offspring from an individual in the Tribes of Jacob with a non Tribes of Jacob is called a mamzer and may enter the assembly of the LORD, even to the tenth generation (Deut. 23:3).  God of Abraham Isaac and Jacob forbids race mixing outside of the Tribes of Jacob as the white race is the Holy Seed of God of Abraham Isaac and Jacob and we are supposed to protect our DNA and keep it pure.  

176. A bastard having intercourse with an Israelite

By this prohibition a bastard is forbidden to have intercourse with an Israelite woman.  It is contained in His words:  A bastard shall not enter into the assembly of the Lord (Deut. 23:3). 

Note:  In order not to create a horror of illicit marriages, a bastard was not allowed to marry an Israelite woman; the adulterer and the adulteress were thus taught that by their act they bring upon their seed irreparable injury.

177. Having intercourse without marriage

By this prohibition a man is forbidden to have intercourse with a woman without duly contracted marriage.  It is contained in His words:  There shall be no harlot of the daughters of Israel (Deut. 23:18) and is found in another form in His words:  Profane not thy daughter, to make her a harlot (Lev. 19:29).  ‘Profane not thy daughter, to make her a harlot:  this refers to one who gives his unmarried daughter for unchastity or to a woman who gives herself for unchastity.’ (Lev. 19:29).

Note:  Now let me tell you why He repeats this Commandment in that form, and what the repetition adds.  We have already had His ordinance that if a man seduces or rapes a maiden [who is not betrothed] he is not liable to any punishment apart from paying a monetary fine, and having to marry the girl, as Scripture states in (Deut. 22:28-29) and (Exodus 22:15-16).  Accordingly, we might think that, since only a monetary penalty is involved, this case is like any other case involving money, and just as a person is at liberty to give away his money to whomever he wishes, or to release another from any debt due to him, so it should be permissible to allow a man to have intercourse with one’s unmarried daughter, and to forgo the money payment, since this—namely, the fifty shekels of silver [in the case of seduction or rape]—belongs to the father of the maiden as of right; or to give one’s daughter to a man [without marriage] in return for a sum of money.  Any such idea is precluded by the prohibition, Profane not thy daughter, to make her a harlot, because the money payment is prescribed only for cases of seduction or rape, and to do such a thing by mutual arrangement is entirely illegal.  And the reason is given in His words:  Lest the land fall into harlotry, and the land become full of lewdness (Lev. 19:29).  Seduction and rape are of rare occurrence, but if such conduct were permitted and legalized, sexual morality would become rare.

This Commandment includes the prohibition of giving one’s daughter in marriage to an old man. 

178. Re-marrying one’s divorced wife after she has re-married

By this prohibition a man is forbidden to re-marry his divorced wife after she has been married to another.  It is contained in His words:  Her former husband, who sent her away, may not take her again to be his wife, after that she is defiled (Deut. 24:4).

Note:  The expression in the above-mentioned verse, after that she is defiled, constitutes the basis for the prohibition of a man’s having intercourse with his wife after she has committed adultery.

179. A man incapable of procreation marrying an Israelite

By this prohibition a man who has suffered an injury which deprives him of the power of procreation is forbidden to marry an Israelite woman.  This prohibition is contained in His words:  He that is crushed or maimed in his privy parts shall not enter into the assembly of the Lord (Deut. 23:2).

180. Castration

By this prohibition we are forbidden to castrate a male of any species whatever, man or beast.  It is contained in the last words of the verse: That which hath its stones bruised, or crushed, or torn, or cut, ye shall not offer unto the Lord; neither shall ye do thus in your land (Lev. 22:24) which Tradition explains as meaning:  ‘neither shall ye do thus to yourselves’.

Note:  How do we know that the castration of a man is forbidden?  From the verse:  Neither shall ye do thus in your land, [meaning], ye shall not do thus to yourselves.

Conclusion

There are many unanswered questions concerning the Commandments.

In Exodus 24:4 it states that Moses wrote down all the words of the Lord in relation to the Commandments.  Then later, in Exodus 24:12 it states that God gave Moses stone tablets with the Law written on them.  The problem here lies in the fact that at the time of the Exodus, there was not a written language, only hieroglyphics.  This means we have to ask

a) What language did God use

b) How did Moses learn how to read and write this language and

c) On what material did Moses write the Law on?

One possible explanation is that Archeologists have found the first known alphabet on the walls of a turquoise mine in the Sinai desert.  Perhaps God through His Holy Spirit was in touch with Moses prior to the Exodus in the Sinai desert. 

The next questions we must ask is did Moses or his father-in-law Jethro, a priest of Midian, contribute to the Laws in the Commandments?  Is it just a coincidence that some of the Commandments, with only minor differences, have been found in Egypt?

How many copies of the Commandments did God give to the Israelites?  Hosea 8:12 states that God wrote for Moses ten thousand precepts of His Law!  This verse in the bible raises more questions.  What language was used by God, and on what type of material was it written on?  It seems strange that God issued this amount of precepts of His law to a people who were illiterate and certainly would not have been able to remember verbatim all 613 of His Commandments.  It is also strange that in Ezekiel 20:25, God states that He gave the Israelites statutes that were not good and ordinances by which they could not live. 

How were the Israelite men, who were illiterate, supposed to abide by Positive Commandment 14 and write a Scroll of the Law for themselves?  The only conclusion that we can draw is that God expected Moses to teach the priests to read and write, which Moses seems to have done.  Deuteronomy 31:9-11 states the priests were expected to read the Law to the people.  Even years after this, the Book of the Law has to be read to the people (Nehemiah 8:2-3) which seems to indicate the people were still illiterate.

The Mark of the Beast – There Is More Than One

Anyone taking the Covid vaccine will have the plagues of Babylon poured out on them and they will wish for death but not find it (Rev. 9:6).  There is more than one Mark of the Beast.  Elon Musk’s neuralink is another form of the Mark of the Beast that will cause you to lose your soul and become a zombie.  People taking the Mark of the Beast / Digital ID 2020 / Covid-19 Vaccines or the Neuralink will be separated from God of Abraham Isaac and Jacob forever and thrown into eternal darkness.  There will be no chance of redemption as detailed in Revelation 14:9-11.

The Other Mark Of The Beast That No One Is Talking About. The Beast Has Two Marks! If The Left Mark Doesn’t Get You, Then The Right One Will! Great Videos!

/prophecy/2020/10/the-other-mark-of-the-beast-that-no-one-is-talking-about-the-beast-has-two-marks-if-the-left-mark-doesnt-get-you-then-the-right-one-will-great-videos-2514746.html

The Covid-19 Vaccine And Neuralink Are Both  Individually  The Mark of the Beast.  You Only Have Take One Of Them To Be Cut Off From God Of Abraham Isaac and Jacob Forever!

Elon Musk is calling Kller Gates a knucklehead as this is just a game between two super evil entities.  Both Musk and Gates are pedalling their own Mark of the Beast.  Either one of these Marks of the Beast or both will cause you to lose your salvation and be separated from God of Abraham Isaac and Jacob for an eternity.

The 5G will activate the nanobots in your body and give the nanobots their marching orders.  The 5G coupled with the Covid-19 vaccines will kill millions.  This is why the second wave will be so much worse than the first wave which only killed 9k people in America and they were all over 85 years old with other problems.  The people that never took the vaccine during the Spanish Pandemic were fine when the 1G was turned on.  People that do not their history are doomed to repeat it.  Anyone taking the Covid-19 DNA changing vaccine will be accepting the Mark of the Beast (Revelation 13:15-18) and will not have any  portion of the world to come or the Kingdom of God of Abraham Isaac and Jacob and will be cut off from God of Abraham Isaac and Jacob forever.  There is no chance of redemption according to Revelation 14:10–11.  The neuralkink being developed by Elon Musk is another form of the Mark of the Beast.  God of Abraham Isaac and Jacob does not dwell in a machine.

The mark of the beast is a mark that will be placed on a person’s forehead or right hand in the end times as a sign of allegiance to the antiChrist (Revelation 13:15–18). Further, no one will be allowed to engage in commerce without the mark (Revelation 13:17). It appears that some form of worship of the antiChrist is associated with receiving the mark (Revelation 14:916:2), and those who refuse to worship the image of the beast will be killed (Revelation 13:15).

The question then arises as to whether a person who has received the mark of the beast can be forgiven. The answer to this question seems to be “no.” Revelation 14:10–11, describing the fate of someone who takes the mark of the beast, declares, “He also will drink the wine of God’s wrath, poured full strength into the cup of his anger, and he will be tormented with fire and sulfur in the presence of the holy angels and in the presence of the Lamb. And the smoke of their torment goes up forever and ever, and they have no rest, day or night, these worshipers of the beast and its image, and whoever receives the mark of its name.”

The eternal destiny of those who take the mark of the beast is the lake of fire. Why is taking the mark of the beast a damnable sin against God of Abraham Isaac and Jacob? Why would God of Abraham Isaac and Jacob condemn a person to hell for taking the mark of the beast? It would appear that taking the mark of the beast will be a blasphemous act of willful defiance against God of Abraham Isaac and Jacob. Receiving the mark of the beast is essentially worshiping Satan / the Beast / Lucifer. Those who take the mark have made the choice to serve Satan rather than obey God of Abraham Isaac and Jacob and receive Messiah Jesus as Savior. When people make that decision during the tribulation, God of Abraham Isaac and Jacob will grant their request to be eternally separated from Him.

This post is the thirty fifth installment of a continuing series on deciphering the prophecy of Revelation and the Holy Scriptures through the use of Holy Gematria. Please click on “More Stories” below my name at the top to see all my previous articles on the Book of Revelation for the complete Rubber Necker’s guide to Armageddon.  I have revealed all the major characters of the Book of Revelation including the enemies of the Christians, the four horsemen of the apocalypse, the Nimrod antichrist, the Beast from the Earth and the Beast from the Sea in both WW2 and WW3, the two witnesses, the two lampstands and the two imposter prophets.

See also The Last Trumpet articles where Stellar posts:

/v3/contributor/stories/?uid=724569

Killer Bankers Are Humanity’s Enemies. All Wars Have Been Banker’s Wars! Ephraim (Britain) Helped Orchestrate WW1 And WW2 Against Judah (Germany) Due To Jealousy As Prophesied By The Prophet Isaiah. Great Eye Opening Video.

/prophecy/2020/09/killer-bankers-are-humanitys-enemies-all-wars-have-been-bankers-wars-ephraim-britain-helped-orchestrate-ww1-and-ww2-against-judah-germany-due-to-jealousy-as-prophesied-by-the-prophet-isaia-2513848.html

“We must realize that our party’s most powerful weapon is racial tensions. By propounding into the consciousness of the dark races that for centuries they have been oppressed by whites, we can mold them to the program of the Communist Party. In America we will aim for subtle victory. While inflaming the Negro minority against the whites, we will endeavor to instill in the whites a guilt complex for their exploitation of the Negros. We will aid the Negroes to rise in prominence in every walk of life, in the professions and in the world of sports and entertainment. With this prestige, the Negro will be able to intermarry with the whites and begin a process which will deliver America to our cause.”
Israel Cohen, A Racial Program for he Twentieth Century, 1912. Also in the Congressional Record, Vol. 103, p. 8559, June 7, 1957 

https://www.stormfront.org/forum/t52756/

Myron Fagan, a Jew  substantiates the quote by Israel Cohen above. Here’s what he says about it:

“Around 1910; one Israel Zengwill wrote a play entitled “The Melting- Pot.” 

“It was sheer propaganda to incite the Negroes and Jews because the play purportedly visualized how the American people were discriminating against, and persecuting Jews and Negroes. 

“At that time nobody seemed to realize that it was a propaganda play. 

“It was that cleverly-written. 

“The propaganda was well wrapped-up in the truly great entertainment in the play and it was a big Broadway Hit. 

“Now in those years, the legendary Diamond Jim Brady used to throw a banquet at the famous Delmonico Restaurant in New York after the opening-performance of a popular play. 

ILLUMINATI INFORMATION: DANGEROUS “ART” BEGINS TO EMERGE
“He threw such a party for the cast of “The Melting-Pot,” its author, producer, and chosen Broadway-celebrities. By then I’d already made a personal mark on the Broadway Theater and was invited to that party. There I met George Bernard Shaw and a Jewish writer named Israel Cohen. 

“Zangwill, Shaw, and Cohen were the ones who created the Fabian Society in England and had worked closely with a Frankfurt Jew named Mordicai who had changed his name to Karl Marx; but remember, at that time both Marxism and Communism were just emerging and nobody paid much attention to either and nobody suspected the propaganda in the writings of those three really brilliant writers. 

“At that banquet; Israel Cohen told me that he was then engaged in writing a book which was to be a follow-up on Zangwill’s “The Melting-Pot.” 

“The title of his book was to be “A Racial-Program for the 20th Century.” At that time I was completely absorbed by my work as a playwright, and significant as that title was, its real objective never dawned on me nor was I interested in reading the book. 

“But it suddenly hit me with the force of a hydrogen-bomb when I received a newspaper-clipping of an item published by the Washington D.C. Evening Star in May 1957. That item was a verbatim reprint of the following excerpt in Israel Cohen’s book “A Racial-Program for the 20th Century” and it read as I quote: 

ILLUMINATI INFORMATION: QUOTE FROM “A RACIAL PROGRAM…”
“We must realize that our party’s most powerful weapon is racial-tension. 

“‘By propounding into the consciousness of the dark races, that for centuries they have been oppressed by the whites, we can move them to the program of the communist party. 

“In America; we will aim for subtle victory. While inflaming the Negro minority against the whites; we will instill in the whites a guilt-complex for their exploitation of the Negroes. 

“We will aid the Negroes to rise to prominence in every walk of life, in the professions, and in the world of sports and entertainment. With this prestige; the Negro will be able to intermarry with the whites and begin a process which will deliver America to our cause.’ 

ILLUMINATI INFORMATION: RECRUITING COMMUNISTS
“… Thus the authenticity of that passage in Cohen’s book was fully 
established. But the one question that remained in my mind was whether it represented the official policy or plot of the Communist Party or just a personal expression of Cohen himself. 

“Hence I sought more proof and I found it in an official pamphlet published in 1935 by the New York Communist Party’s official Workers’ Library Publishers. 

“That pamphlet was entitled: “The Negroes in a Soviet America.” It urged the Negroes to rise-up; form a soviet state in the south, and apply for admission to the Soviet Union. It contained a firm pledge that the revolt would be supported by all American “reds” and all so-called “liberals”. 

“On page 38; it promised that a Soviet government would confer greater benefits to Negroes than to whites and again this official communist pamphlet pledged that; I quote: ‘any act of discrimination or prejudice against a Negro will become a crime under the revolutionary law.’ 

“That statement proved that the excerpt in Israel Cohen’s book published in 1913 was an official-edict of the Communist Party and directly in line with the Illuminati-blueprint for world-revolution issued by Weishaupt and later by Albert Pike. 

ILLUMINATI INFORMATION: RECRUITING COMMUNISTS
“Now there’s only one question and that is to prove that the communist regime is directly controlled by the American Jacob Schiff and London Rothschild masterminds of the great conspiracy. 

“A little later I will provide that proof that will remove even a remote doubt that the Communist Party, as we know it, was created by those masterminds (capitalists if you will note)… 

“Schiff, the Warburgs, and the Rothschilds that planned and financed the entire Russian Revolution; the murder of the Czar and his family, and that Lenin, Trotsky, and Stalin took their orders directly from Schiff and the other capitalists whom they supposedly are fighting. 

“Now can you see why the vile Earl Warren and his equally vile co-Supreme Court justices issued that infamous and treasonous desegregation decision in 1954? It was to aid and abet the plot of the Illuminati conspirators to create tension and strife between the Negroes and Whites. 

“Can you see why the same Earl Warren issued his decision prohibiting Christian-prayers and Christmas carols in our schools? Why Kennedy did likewise? And can you see why Johnson and 66 Senators, despite the protests of 90% of the American people, voted for the “Consular Treaty” which opens our entire country to Russian spies and saboteurs? 

 

“All those 66 Senators are 20th century Benedict Arnolds.” 

Above excerpt comes from The Illuminati and the Council on Foreign Relations, by Myron Fagan. For Part 12 of this intriguing look at Illuminati information, see The Order of Illuminati.

Dr. Oscar Ludwig Levy Quote

“We who have posed as Saviors of the World … we (Jews) are today nothing else but the world’s seducers, its destroyers, it’s incendiaries, its executioners .. We who have promised to lead you to a new heaven, we have finally seceded in leading you into the new hell.Dr. Oscar Ludwig Levy, Preface to the World Significance of the Russian Revolution 1920.”

Famous Quote Abouts Jews 

“I fully agree with General Washington, that we must protect this young nation from an insidious influence and impenetration. The menace, gentlemen, is the Jews. In whatever country Jews have settled in any great number, they have lowered its moral tone; depreciated its commercial integrity; have segregated themselves and have not been assimilated; have sneered at and tried to undermine the Christian religion upon which that nation is founded, by objecting to its restrictions; have built up a state within the state; and when opposed have tried to strangle that country to death financially, as in the case of Spain and Portugal.”

“For over 1,700 years, the Jews have been bewailing their sad fate in that they have been exiled from their homeland, as they call Palestine. But gentlemen, did the world give it to them in fee simple, they would at once find some reason for not returning. Why? Because they are vampires, and vampires do not live on vampires. They cannot live only among themselves. They must subsist on Christians and other people not of their race.”

“If you do not exclude them from these United States, in their Constitution, in less than 200 years they will have swarmed here in such great numbers that they will dominate and devour the land and change our form of government, for which we Americans have shed our blood, given our lives our substance and jeopardized our liberty.” “If you do not exclude them, in less than 200 years our descendants will be working in the fields to furnish them substance, while they will be in the counting houses rubbing their hands. I warn you, gentlemen, if you do not exclude Jews for all time, your children will curse you in your graves.”

“Jews, gentlemen, are Asiatic (Khazars – GOG & MaGOG of Russia), let them be born where they will nor how many generations they are away from Asia, they will never be otherwise. Their ideas do not conform to an American’s, and will not even thou they live among us ten generations. A leopard cannot change its spots. Jews are Asiatics, (Khazars) are a menace to this country if permitted entrance, and should be excluded by this Constitutional Convention.”

Ben Franklin, 1789.

Secret Societies are Controlled by the Jews to bring about the Jewish Controlled New World Order

Mysterious Force was the original name of Freemasonry, which started in 43 A.D and later took on the name of Freemasonry started in 1717 by Joseph Levy and Abraham Abuid to bring in more European men, then to to destroy Christianity that was growing to fast for them to infiltrate–Facts and fictions of Freemasonry by Margaret C. Jacob and Dissipation of Darkness: The Origins of Freemasonry

THE JEWISH TRIBUNE, New York, Oct. 28, 1927, Cheshvan 2, 5688, Vol. 91, No. 18: “Masonry is based on Judaism. Eliminate the teachings of Judaism from the Masonic ritual and what is left?”

LA VERITE ISRAELITE, Jewish paper 1861, IV, page 74: “The spirit of Freemasonry is the spirit of Judaism in its most fundamental beliefs; it is its ideas, its language, it is mostly its organization, the hopes which enlighten and support Israel. It’s crowning will be that wonderful prayer house of which Jerusalem will be the triumphal centre and symbol.”

LE SYMBOLISM, July, 1928: “The most important duty of the Freemason must be to glorify the Jewish Race, which has preserved the unchanged divine standard of wisdom. You must rely upon the Jewish race to dissolve all frontiers.”

AN ENCYCLOPEDIA OF FREEMASONRY, Philadelphia, 1906: “Each Lodge is and must be a symbol of the Jewish temple; each Master in the Chair, a representative of the Jewish King; and every Mason a personification of the Jewish workman.”

MANUAL OF FREEMASONRY, by Richard Carlile: “The Grand Lodge Masonry of the present day is wholly Jewish.”

THE FREEMASON, April 2, 1930, quoting Br. Rev. S. McGowan: “Freemasonry is founded on the ancient law of Israel. Israel has given birth to the moral beauty which forms the basis of Freemasonry.”

Rabbi Br. Isaac Wise, in The Israelite of America, March 8, 1866: “Masonry is a Jewish institution whose history, degrees, charges, passwords and explanations are Jewish from beginning to end.”

Benjamin Disraeli, Jew, Prime Minister of England, in The Life of Lord George Bentick: “At the head of all those secret societies, which form provisional governments, men of the Jewish race are to be found.”

LATOMIA, a German Masonic journal, Vol. 12, July 1849, Page 237: “We cannot help but greet socialism (Marxism – Communism) as an excellent comrade of Freemasonry for ennobling mankind, for helping to further human welfare. Socialism and Freemasonry, together with Communism are sprung from the same source.”

BERNARD STILLMAN, Jew, in Hebraic influences on Masonic Symbolism, 1929, quoted The Masonic News, London: “I think I have proved sufficiently that Freemasonry, as what concurs symbolism, lays entirely on a formation which is essentially Jewish.”

O.B. Good, M.A. in The Hidden Hand of Judah, 1936: “The influence of the Jewish Sanhedrin is today more powerful than ever in Freemasonry.”

JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA, 1903, Vol, 5, page 503: “The technical language, symbolism and rites of Freemasonry are full of Jewish ideas and terms . . . In the Scottish Rite, the dates on official documents are given according to the era and months of the Jewish calendar, and use is made of the Hebraic alphabet.”

B’NAI B’RITH MAGAZINE, Vol. 13, page 8, quoting rabbi and mason Magnin: “The B’nai B’rith are but a makeshift. Everywhere that Freemasonry can admit that it is Jewish in its nature as well as in its aims, the ordinary lodges are sufficient for the task.

Please Note: The ADL (Anti-Defamation League) of B’nai B’rith is a totally Jewish controlled organization with its main goal to destroy Christianity.

(Also, the B’nai B’rith form a super-Masonic lodge where no “Gentiles” are admitted.)

TRANSACTIONS OF THE JEWISH HISTORICAL SOCIETY Vol. 2, p 156: “The Coat of Arms used by the Grand Lodge of England is entirely composed of Jewish symbols.”

Update On The 3rd Temple – Peace Deal – Noahide Laws – One World Religion – The Fake Snake Messiah.

David Goldberg, in his last video before he was killed, confirm that Donald Trump is Jewish and will be selected as the Jewish “fake snake” Messiah at the 1:59:30 mark.  The Jews planned this “last act” long ago and everyone is acting their part on this world stage today.  Donald Trump was selected to act as King Cyrus to take down and destroy America (Babylon) from within without firing a shot.   All the evil characters in the Bible are back on earth today and King Jesus will extinguish all the evil when He touches down to earth in 2022 (1 Corr. 15. 24-25).  Hallelujah!

The Rapture Date of November 1, 2020 is included in this article.

The Simpsons Forecasted The Rise And Fall Of President Trump. Another Show Predicts The Fall of Pence. Is The Grim Reaper In Trump And Pence’s Immediate Future? Who Will Become The Führer Of The Fourth Reich In America? Excellent Videos And Decode!

/christian-news/2020/09/the-simpsons-forecasted-that-trump-will-be-in-a-casket-another-show-predicts-that-pence-will-be-dead-at-the-age-of-61-is-the-grim-reaper-in-trump-and-pences-immediate-future-who-will-bec-2589050.html

 



Before It’s News® is a community of individuals who report on what’s going on around them, from all around the world.

Anyone can join.
Anyone can contribute.
Anyone can become informed about their world.

"United We Stand" Click Here To Create Your Personal Citizen Journalist Account Today, Be Sure To Invite Your Friends.

Please Help Support BeforeitsNews by trying our Natural Health Products below!


Order by Phone at 888-809-8385 or online at https://mitocopper.com M - F 9am to 5pm EST


Order by Phone at 888-809-8385 or online at https://www.herbanomic.com M - F 9am to 5pm EST


Humic & Fulvic Trace Minerals Complex - Nature's most important supplement! Vivid Dreams again!

HNEX HydroNano EXtracellular Water - Improve immune system health and reduce inflammation

Ultimate Clinical Potency Curcumin - Natural pain relief, reduce inflammation and so much more.

MitoCopper - Bioavailable Copper destroys pathogens and gives you more energy. (See Blood Video)
Oxy Powder - Natural Colon Cleanser!  Cleans out toxic buildup with oxygen! 
Nascent Iodine - Promotes detoxification, mental focus and thyroid health.
Smart Meter Cover -  Reduces Smart Meter radiation by 96%!  (See Video)

Immusist Beverage Concentrate - Proprietary blend, formulated to reduce inflammation while hydrating and oxygenating the cells.

Report abuse
Loading...

    Comments

    Your Comments
    Question   Razz  Sad   Evil  Exclaim  Smile  Redface  Biggrin  Surprised  Eek   Confused   Cool  LOL   Mad   Twisted  Rolleyes   Wink  Idea  Arrow  Neutral  Cry   Mr. Green

    Total 1 comment
    • deano

      ………look at the image of Moses holding the commandments ……its NOT MODERN HEBREW letters.
      Those letters/symbols are Paleo-biblical ‘hebruue’ = PHONECIAN.

      * if one bothers to SEE :eek: …………open their EYES……and LOOK.

      # for a Pharoh to get to heaven…..he made his Declaration of Innocence……all 42 of them!!!
      eg>……’i have not stolen’…..i have not killed…….i have not Covetted my neighbors wife..+,+,+

      His ‘heart’ was weighed against a feather……on Thoth’s SCALES of JUSTICE.

      …….in your greek babble bk today…….in PROVERBS ..>> ‘ the lord weighs the heart’.

      The golden calf statues of ‘graven images’…….is for @HATHOR……the mother goddess of breast milk feeding (symbology).

      …….her name lives today on mnt Sinai………the Monastary of St cHATHORine…. :mrgreen:

      * The very title of AMUN…Amen-Ra….was “Shepard of the Flock”…..the RAM of god, not sacrificial lamb.. :razz:

    MOST RECENT
    Load more ...

    SignUp

    Login

    Newsletter

    Email this story
    Email this story

    If you really want to ban this commenter, please write down the reason:

    If you really want to disable all recommended stories, click on OK button. After that, you will be redirect to your options page.