South Africa’s central bank kept its benchmark repurchase rate steady at 6.75 percent despite a lower outlook for economic growth and a decline in inflation as three members of its monetary policy committee voted to maintain the rate while two members voted to cut by 25 basis points.
”Any future policy adjustments will continue to be data dependent,” South African Reserve Bank (SARB) Governor Lesetja Kganyago said, adding the rate path generated by the bank’s latest projection model implied one rate cut of 25 basis points by the end of the first quarter of 2020, a sharp shift from March when the model implied a rate hike this year.
”Over the past few months, global growth has rebounded somewhat, but significant downside risks remain, in particular from threats to the global trade regime,” Kganyago said, adding business and consumer confidence continues to weigh on economic activity as constraints on electricity and a strike in a major gold mine contributed to a weak performance in the first quarter.
South Africa’s gross domestic product is now expected to shrink in the first quarter of this year and the bank’s leading business cycle indicator has trended lower since March 2018, with the risks to the growth forecast seen on the downside, limited by weak confidence and growing pressure on disposable income and declining fixed investments.
SARB lowered its forecast for GDP this year to 1.0 percent from the March forecast of 1.3 percent but left its 2020 and 2021 forecasts for growth unchanged at 1.8 percent and 2.0 percent, respectively.
As before, SARB said the challenges facing the country’s economy are primarily structural and can’t be solved by monetary policy, making it urgent for policy makers to combine prudent macroeconomic policies with structural reform to raise potential growth and lower overall costs.
Weak demand and lower food prices has helped curb inflation, which has come down sharply in recent months, and SARB now expects inflation to peak at 5.5 percent in the first quarter of next year and settle at 4.5 percent in the last two quarters of 2021, within SARB’s target of 3.0 to 6.0 percent.
In April South Africa’s headline inflation rate eased to 4.4 percent, and the central bank lowered its forecast for 2019 inflation to average 4.5 percent from a previous forecast of 4.8 percent. For 2020 inflation is seen rising to 5.1 percent and then easing to 4.6 percent in 2021.
South Africa’s rand has benefitted from improved sentiment towards risk assets in recent months due to easier monetary conditions in advanced economies and risen 1.5 percent against the U.S. dollar since the last policy meeting in March.
Today the rand weakened in response to SARB’s decision to trade at 14.5 to the dollar, unchanged since the start of the year.
The South African Reserve Bank issued the following statement by its monetary policy committee and Governor Lesetja Kganyago:
“Over the past few months, global growth has rebounded somewhat, but significant downside risks remain, in particular from threats to the global trade regime. Domestically, electricity supply constraints and a protracted strike in a major gold mine contributed to a weak first quarter performance. Business and consumer confidence continue to weigh on the near-term growth forecast. Recent monthly inflation outcomes have remained around the mid-point of the inflation target range, in part due to weak demand and positive inflation data surprises. The medium-term inflation outlook has moderated slightly.
The year-on-year inflation rate as measured by the consumer price index (CPI) for all urban areas was 4.4% in April (down from 4.5% in March). Goods price inflation was 4.2% (up from 4.1% in March), while services price inflation was 4.6% (down from 4.9% in March). The Bank’s measure of core inflation, which excludes food, fuel andelectricity, was 4.1% in April (down from 4.4% in March). Producer price inflation for final manufactured goods increased to 6.2% in March (from 4.7% in February).
The inflation forecast generated by the SARB’s Quarterly Projection Model (QPM) has
improved since the previous MPC. Headline inflation is expected to average 4.5% in
2019 (down from 4.8%), increasing to 5.1% in 2020 (down from 5.3%) and moderating to 4.6% in 2021 (down from 4.7%). Headline CPI inflation is expected to peak at 5.5% in the first quarter of 2020 and settle at 4.5% in the last two quarters of 2021.
Moderation in rental prices, unit labour costs and inflation expectations also contribute to lower core inflation over the medium term. The forecast for core inflation is lower at 4.5% in 2019 (down from 4.8%), 4.8% in 2020 (down from 4.9%) and 4.5% in 2021.
Average inflation expectations have been declining slowly since the end of 2017. The inflation expectations of market analysts in the May 2019 Reuters Econometer survey were unchanged at 4.7% for 2019 while expectations edged down to 5.2% for 2020 (from 5.3%) and 5.0% for 2021 (from 5.1%). Market-based expectations implicit in the break-even inflation rates (i.e. the yield differential between conventional and inflation- linked government bonds) remain sensitive to exchange rate movements. Since our last meeting, five-year break-even rates increased to 5.1% and ten-year break-even rates were unchanged at 5.8%. The next BER1 inflation expectations survey will be published in July.
Global GDP is expected to average 3.3% in 2019 and stabilise around 3.5% from 2020. While global economic activity remains moderate overall, growth momentum has slowed somewhat and there are many risks. Trade tensions have escalated between the United States and China, weighing on market confidence. Further tariff increases could disrupt global value chains and further reduce global trade. The IMF April 2019 World Economic Outlook estimates that tariff increases could subtract as much as 0.8 percentage points from global growth. Much uncertainty remains around Brexit, alongside other geo-political developments. In some countries, there also remain significant financial vulnerabilities associated with elevated private and public debt.
The performance of emerging market currencies was mixed, reflecting a combination of changes in investor sentiment, easier monetary conditions in major economies and country specific factors. Currencies of countries with stronger macroeconomic fundamentals remain better placed to benefit from these developments. The rand has benefited from improved sentiment towards riskier assets but will continue to be affected by idiosyncratic factors such as domestic growth prospects and policy settings.
Since the March MPC, the rand has appreciated by 1.5% against the US dollar, by 2.5% against the euro, and by 3.1% on a trade-weighted basis. The implied starting point for the rand is R14.40 against the US dollar, compared with R14.00 at the time of the previous meeting. At these levels, the QPM assesses the rand to be slightly undervalued.
Based on recent short term indicators and negative growth in mining and
manufacturing, GDP is expected to contract in the first quarter of 2019. The disappointing data outcomes partly reflect supply side constraints due to load shedding and a strike at a major gold mine. Fixed capital formation and household consumption expenditure also remain weak.
The SARB now expects GDP growth for 2019 to average 1.0% (down from 1.3% in March). The forecast for 2020 and 2021 is unchanged at 1.8% and 2.0% respectively. The near term growth outlook is limited by the larger than expected slowdown in the first quarter, weak business and consumer confidence as well as growing pressure on household disposable income. Real fixed investment is now forecast to contract by 0.3% in 2019, while household consumption expenditure will rise by a modest 1.0%.
The MPC assesses the risks to the growth forecast to be on the downside. Weak business confidence, possible electricity supply constraints and high debt levels in certain state-owned enterprises will continue to limit investment prospects. The escalation of trade tensions could significantly impact global trade with likely negative impacts for South Africa as a small open economy. The Committee remains of the view that current challenges facing the economy are primarily structural in nature and cannot be resolved by monetary policy alone. It is now even more urgent to have a combination of prudent macroeconomic policies and structural reforms that raise potential growth and lower the cost structure of the economy.
The MPC welcomes the continued downward trend in recent inflation outcomes and
the moderation in inflation expectations. These are positive developments, as the Committee would like to see inflation remain close to the mid-point of the inflation target range on a more sustained basis.
Against this backdrop, the MPC decided to keep the repurchase rate unchanged at 6.75% per year. Three members preferred to keep rates on hold and two members preferred a cut of 25 basis points. The Committee assesses the stance of monetary policy to be broadly accommodative over the forecast period. Any future policy adjustments will continue to be data dependent.
The implied path of policy rates generated by the Quarterly Projection Model is for one cut of 25 basis points to the repo rate by the end of first quarter of 2020. The endogenous interest rate path is built into the growth and inflation forecast. As emphasized previously, the implied path remains a broad policy guide which could change in either direction from meeting to meeting in response to new developments and changing risks.”
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