Read the Beforeitsnews.com story here. Advertise at Before It's News here.
Profile image
By Hydrogen Fuel Cars & Vehicles (Reporter)
Contributor profile | More stories
Story Views
Now:
Last hour:
Last 24 hours:
Total:

Ammonia believed to benefit Hydrogen & Fuel Cell History

% of readers think this story is Fact. Add your two cents.


“A man with a new idea is a crank until he succeeds.” – Mark Twain

Can science find a detour to the Hydrogen Economy?

Serious scientists believe that, before an infrastructure can support a fuel cell based transportation industry, the present system could easily adopt to ammonia, if only temporary. Kevin Kantola already wrote about this in a 2008 article on this website.

As you well know, it is not just a simple matter of filling a tank with hydrogen to run an engine – or engineering a fuel cell stack and bolting it into a vehicle.  Many branches of learning and diverse occupations must come together, to shape an innovative industry, a new age, and a unique new ’green’ society.

In hindsight, and knowing little about chemistry, I realize how infinitely complex this very simple element, H2 seems to be, requiring almost two hundred years of experimentation.  Surely, study and advancement will continue. In this new millennium, many industry groups demonstrate a strong ambition to get ready for mass production and join the hydrogen age.  Supported by the public’s concern with leaving our carbon-based economy behind, others call for more immediate action and results.

“There is an alternative to a hydrogen future: The Ammonia Economy”  Vito Agosta, October 2003

[Note: Vito Agosta is Professor Emeritus in the Department of Mechanical, Aerospace, Industrial, Manufacturing, and Materials Engineering at Polytechnic University in Brooklyn, N.Y., and is president of Propulsion Sciences Co. in Huntington Station, N.Y.]

The following is part of an article he wrote; here you can read the complete version.

“It was suggested by President Bush in his State of the Union message that hydrogen be employed by society as the fuel to meet our future energy needs.  I reacted to this suggestion with a degree of alarm. Putting aside for the present the dangers in handling and using hydrogen in energy devices, the development of such a project is very expensive and would come to fruition about a generation hence.  An alternate solution that is immediately available employs ammonia in internal combustion engine technology.  There are no large development costs, and the price of the resulting vehicle is not significantly increased.  In addition, the fuel, i.e., ammonia, is presently abundant and the fuel handling technology already exists and is user-friendly.

Picture from The American Society Of Mechanical Engineers – Ammonia tanks for agriculture (fertilizer)

About 40 years ago, -so writes Agosta,- I was a project leader on an Army research contract to produce fuel from air and water suitable to be used immediately in Army vehicles and devices.  The family of fuels that could be produced was those that contained hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen, e.g., hydrogen, ammonia, hydrazine. Hydrogen and hydrazine were ruled out.  Storage and handling technologies for these fuels were not adequately developed.  Of more importance, the combustion properties of these fuels put the non-technical layman in harm’s way. The advantages of using hydrogen are that it burns well in energy devices; has very wide limits of flammability, making for stable combustion; and has a large heat of combustion per unit mass.

There are also disadvantages to hydrogen. It detonates very easily.  When used in diesel engines, it needs to be compressed for injection into the cylinder. But doing so can consume up to 15 percent of its output power, thus compromising its efficiency.  At low pressure, its heat of combustion is low per unit volume. Although Honda has introduced a hydrogen-powered car employing a fuel cell that offers many advantages, and Toyota and others will soon follow suit, in the immediate future hydrogen will not be readily available at the corner fuel station.” — (‘Gas’ stations for H2 are being built now at many locations worldwide)

Why not continue on the path where “others will soon follow suit”?  Why waste time and resources on an interim solution?  More ‘others’ are Hyundai, already marketing FCEVs and several more have announced their FCEVs will soon be in production.

After some searching in early 2017, I learned the following manufacturers are testing FCEVs: Alfa-Romeo, Audi, AvtoVAZ-Lada, Bentley, BMW, FiatChrysler, Ford, General Motors (various divisions), Honda, Hyundai, (both in production now) Jeep, Kawasaki, Kia, London Taxi and Bus Co., Lotus, Mahindra, Maserati, McLaren, Mazda, Mercedes-Benz, Mitsubishi, Morgan, Opel, Peugeot, Porsche, Renault-Nissan, Seat, Skoda, Suzuki, Tata, Toyota, (in production now), Vauxhall, Volkswagen, Volvo + a number of original Chinese automakers (other than joint ventures), as well as bus and truck manufacturers belonging to the Daimler and VW Groups — that is almost every car and bike maker on this planet. With absolute certainty, I missed several, especially in China. — Which one will be the next in a dealership showroom?

FCEVs are the future in transportation; EVs are more expensive to mass-manufacture than fuel cell cars, according to Toyota.

Remember Churchill’s Quote? “A pessimist sees the difficulty in every opportunity; an optimist sees the opportunity in every difficulty.”

Next: Toyota believes in Hydrogen & Fuel Cell History – and Future



Source: http://www.hydrogencarsnow.com/index.php/history/ammonia-believed-to-benefit-hydrogen-fuel-cell-history/


Before It’s News® is a community of individuals who report on what’s going on around them, from all around the world.

Anyone can join.
Anyone can contribute.
Anyone can become informed about their world.

"United We Stand" Click Here To Create Your Personal Citizen Journalist Account Today, Be Sure To Invite Your Friends.

Please Help Support BeforeitsNews by trying our Natural Health Products below!


Order by Phone at 888-809-8385 or online at https://mitocopper.com M - F 9am to 5pm EST

Order by Phone at 888-388-7003 or online at https://www.herbanomic.com M - F 9am to 5pm EST

Order by Phone at 888-388-7003 or online at https://www.herbanomics.com M - F 9am to 5pm EST


Humic & Fulvic Trace Minerals Complex - Nature's most important supplement! Vivid Dreams again!

HNEX HydroNano EXtracellular Water - Improve immune system health and reduce inflammation

Ultimate Clinical Potency Curcumin - Natural pain relief, reduce inflammation and so much more.

MitoCopper - Bioavailable Copper destroys pathogens and gives you more energy. (See Blood Video)
Oxy Powder - Natural Colon Cleanser!  Cleans out toxic buildup with oxygen! 
Nascent Iodine - Promotes detoxification, mental focus and thyroid health.
Smart Meter Cover -  Reduces Smart Meter radiation by 96%!  (See Video)

Immusist Beverage Concentrate - Proprietary blend, formulated to reduce inflammation while hydrating and oxygenating the cells.

Report abuse
Loading...

    Comments

    Your Comments
    Question   Razz  Sad   Evil  Exclaim  Smile  Redface  Biggrin  Surprised  Eek   Confused   Cool  LOL   Mad   Twisted  Rolleyes   Wink  Idea  Arrow  Neutral  Cry   Mr. Green

    MOST RECENT
    Load more ...

    SignUp

    Login

    Newsletter

    Email this story
    Email this story

    If you really want to ban this commenter, please write down the reason:

    If you really want to disable all recommended stories, click on OK button. After that, you will be redirect to your options page.