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Beware of Fish Omega 3 Supplement 14 Side Effects, Researchers show

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Omega-3 fatty acids are phytochemicals in the class of lipids, found abundantly in deep-sea fish, dark-green leafy vegetables, grains, legumes, nuts,…..

Fish oil omega-3 fatty acids, contained mainly eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, although the supplement has been found to process some significant effects in the management and treatment of several diseases, many of which are inflammatory in nature. However, the supplement may induce some outlined adverse effects.

1. Altered platelet function

Omega 3 fatty acid made from fish may have a strong implication on platelet function due to the presence of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in increased occlusion time and sharply reduced accumulation of fibrin under flow conditions(1)(2).

Therefore, people with the abnormal bleeding problem should be avoid taking the supplement(2).

2. Gastrointestinal adverse effects
Although Omega-3 fatty acids may have a potential in triglycerides lowering, reduction of inflammatory indices, immunomodulation, anti- thrombotic effects, particularly in gastro-protective activity. However, when the healthy supplement taken together with cortisone may cause gastrointestinal bleeding the in induction of duodenum ulcer.

This result may be attributed by cortisone in increased oxidation in render them proinflammatory(3).

Other researchers suggested that over doses of omega-3 fatty acids may enhance intestinal production and secretion of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), the in induction of the induces changes of gut bacteria composition resulting in decreased lipopolysaccharide production and gut permeability(7).

3. Detrimental Effects on Wound Healing
In the observation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated signaling is required for optimal intestinal wound healing, researchers found that during the early response to intestinal wounding, DHA and EPA uniquely delay the activation of key wound-healing processes in the colon through at least in part suppression of EGFR function(4).

4. Increased risk of lipid peroxidation
Omega 3 fatty acide may interact with reactive oxygen species ROS in inscreased risk of lipid peroxidation the in induction of ethane expression in human breath(5). 

5. Toxin exposure
Omega 3 fatty acid produced by large amounts of fish may result in adverse effect due to the potential presence of environmental toxins such as mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins,…. (8).

Moreover, omega-3 fatty acid preparation may undergo oxidation incontribution to patient intolerance and potential toxicity(8).

6, Weight gain
Intake of omega 3 fatty during pregancy may have a potential effect in induced weight gain of male offspring a poor outcomes associated with high maternal weight gain early in pregnancy(10)..

7. Altered immune function
Omega 3 fatty acide with abubdant arachidonic acid, EPA and DHA contents may alter the balanced pattern of production of eicosanoids and probably also of docosanoids and resolvins, affecting phagocytosis, T-cell signaling and antigen presentation capability(11).

8. Glycemic control 
According to a randomized double-blind crossover study in compared 6 wk of n-3 fatty acid supplementation (12 g fish oil) and corn plus olive oil, long term intake of 3 fatty acid supplementation expressed in increased glycerol gluconeogenesis in contribution to deterioration of glycemic control(12).

However, during the 6 weeks of experiment, researchers also found intake of n-3 fatty acid supplementation lowers triacylglycerols in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus without worsening glycemic control(12).

9. Drug interactions
9. 1. Intake of Omega-3 fatty acids may increase the effects of blood thinning medications, including aspirin, warfarin (Coumadin), and clopedigrel due to its anti coagulative activity(13).

9.2. May increase fasting blood sugar levels, thus reducing the effect of blood sugar lowering medications, such as glipizide (Glucotrol and Glucotrol XL), glyburide (Micronase or Diabeta), glucophage (Metformin)(13).

9.3. Lower the effect of Cholesterol-lowering medications due to the alternation of ratio of good and bad cholesterol(13).

10. Pregnancy and 11. Lactation

Consumption of the nutrients omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3 FA) during pregnancy and lactation is considered beneficial to fetal and infant development. However, according to the animal study by the Wayne State University School of Medicine, Consuming or administering large or inadequate amounts of omega-3 FA during pregnancy and lactation may induce the potential for adverse effects on infant development(6).

12. Impair host resistance to intracellular pathogens
In the study of Wild-type and fat-1 transgenic mice infected with virulent H37Rv M. tuberculosis via the aerosol route, observation of bacteriological and histopathological changes in lungs, researchers suggested that endogenous production of n-3 PUFAs in fat-1 mice increases their susceptibility to tuberculosis due to impaired bacterial control in cells and reduced proinflammatory cytokine secretion, impaired oxidative metabolism, and diminished M. tuberculosis-lysotracker colocalization within phagosomes(9).

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Back to Kyle J. Norton Home page http://kylejnorton.blogspot.ca
Author Biography

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar, Master of Nutrition), all right reserved.
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it’s news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada – Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

Sources
(1) Potential adverse effects of omega-3 Fatty acids in dogs and cats by Lenox CE1, Bauer JE. (PubMed)
(2) Exogenous modification of platelet membranes with the omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA reduces platelet procoagulant activity and thrombus formation byLarson MK1, Tormoen GW, Weaver LJ, Luepke KJ, Patel IA, Hjelmen CE, Ensz NM, McComas LS, McCarty OJ. (PubMed)
(3) Gastrointestinal bleeding after high intake of omega-3 fatty acids, cortisone and antibiotic therapy: a case study by Detopoulou P1, Papamikos V.(PubMed)
(4) Inhibitory effects of omega-3 fatty acids on injury-induced epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation contribute to delayed wound healing by Turk HF1, Monk JM, Fan YY, Callaway ES, Weeks B, Chapkin RS(PubMed)
(5) Increased levels of ethane, a non-invasive marker of n-3 fatty acid oxidation, in the breath of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder by Ross BM1, McKenzie I, Glen I, Bennett CP. (PubMed)
(6) Reduced auditory acuity in rat pups from excess and deficient omega-3 fatty acidconsumption by the mother by Church MW1, Jen KL, Stafferton T, Hotra JW, Adams BR. (PubMed)
(7) A host-microbiome interaction mediates the opposing effects of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids on metabolic endotoxemia by Kaliannan K1, Wang B1, Li XY1, Kim KJ1, Kang JX1. (PubMed)
(8) Safety considerations with omega-3 fatty acid therapy by Bays HE(PubMed)
(9) Transgenic mice enriched in omega-3 fatty acids are more susceptible to pulmonary tuberculosis: impaired resistance to tuberculosis in fat-1 mice by Bonilla DL1, Fan YY, Chapkin RS, McMurray DN. (PubMed)
(10) Maternal Weight Gain Regulates Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Male, Not Female, Neonates by O’Tierney-Ginn PF1, Gillingham M2, Fowler J3, Brass E4, Marshall NE5,6, Thornburg KL(PubMed)
(11) Immunomodulation by omega-3 fatty acids by Calder PC(PubMed).
(12) Dietary supplementation with n-3 fatty acids increases gluconeogenesis from glycerol but not hepatic glucose production in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus by Puhakainen I1, Ahola I, Yki-Järvinen H.(PubMed)
(13) Possible Interactions with: Omega-3 Fatty Acids by Pennstate University



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