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Herbal Calendula, Protects Lipid, Protein and Cells DNA Against Damage Caused by Oxidative Stress

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Scientists may have found a natural remedy for the prevention and treatment of the diseases associated with the expression of oxidative stress, according to studies.

Antioxidants are stable molecules that inhibit the oxidation induced by free radical.
Free radicals are unstable and high reactive molecules with a single electron in the outer ring.

In order for them to become stable, free radicals are ready to donate or intercept an electron from other molecules, leading to a chain reaction that cannot be stopped until the electrons on the outer ring are paired or inhibited by antioxidants.

Oxidative stress is a condition caused by either overexpression of free radical or low levels of antioxidant enzymes produced by the host body.

In other words, the unbalanced ratio of the levels of free radicals and antioxidants enzymes is the major cause of the onset of oxidative stress, leading to the damage of lipid, DNA, and protein in the cells of the host.

 

Although there are many risk factors associated with the development of the condition, some researchers suggested that smoking is one of the preventable and major risks in the induction of the onset of oxidative stress.

 

Dr. Isik B in the comparison of the risk of oxidative stress in smokers and nonsmokers wrote, “Smoking may enhance oxidative stress not only through the production of reactive oxygen radicals in smoke but also through the weakening of the antioxidant defense systems”.

 

And, “: The serum MDA levels were significantly higher (p < .05) and serum PON1 activities were significantly lower (p < .001) in smokers than in nonsmokers”.

 

Where serum malondialdehyde (MDA) is an oxidative stress marker and paraoxonase (PON1) is an HDL-associated enzyme which protects the HDL against oxidation.

Calendula is also known as pot marigold, annual or perennial herbaceous plants of about 12–20 species of genus Calendula, belonging to the family Asteraceae, native to Southern Europe.

The herbal medicine has been used in herbal medicine as spasmolytic, spasmogenic, inflammatory effects and for the treatment of abdominal cramps, wound healing, skin diseases, colitis, constipation, etc.

Besides major chemical constituents of triterpenoids, flavonoids, coumarines, quinones, volatile oil, carotenoids, and amino acids, the herb also contains loliolide (calendin), calendulin and n-paraffins.

Researchers on finding a herbal medicine which process a high amount of antioxidants examined the
Calendula officinalis flower extract effects against experimentally induced thermal burns made on the shaven back of the rats under anesthesia in rats.

 

The animals then are treated orally with different doses of the flower extracts (20 mg, 100 mg, and 200 mg/kg body weight). 

 

Injection of the extracts showed significant improvement in healing when compared with the control untreated animals.

 

The wound healing is observed by the speeding up through the increase of the concentration of collagen contents in the treated group.

 

The acute phase proteins associated with the oxidative activity was increased due to burning were found to be decreased significantly in 200 mg/kg body weight extract treated animals.

 

The antioxidant defense mechanism decreased in the liver during burn injury, was found to be enhanced in treated animals. 

 

The lipid peroxidation was significantly lowered in the treated group, accompanied by a decrease of the tissue damage marker compared to control animals.

 

Furthermore, in the investigation of the Flower extract of C. officinalis L. protective effect against CCl4 induced acute hepatotoxicity and cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, pretreatment of the flower extract at 100 and 250 mg/kg body weight exerted a significant reduction of the tissue and oxidative stress makers compared to untreated group.

 

The extract displayed a liver protective effect observed by the decreased levels of lipid peroxidation the marker of membrane damage and the total bilirubin content in the liver.

 

Moreover, the herbal extract also demonstrated kidney protective effects observed by the reduced levels of the kidney function markers, urea, and creatinine which were significantly increased in cisplatin-treated animals.

 

Additionally, the cisplatin-induced myelosuppression was ameliorated by the extract pretreatment, through enhancing the levels of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase and catalase and glutathione.

Dr. Preethi KC, the lead scientist wrote in the final report, “Possible mechanism of action of the flower extract may be due to its antioxidant activity and reduction of oxygen radicals”.

 

Taken altogether, herbal Calendula may be considered a functional remedy for the protection of our body against disease associated with oxidative stress, through its antioxidant activity.

References
(1) Antioxidant capacity of calendula officinalis flowers extract and prevention of radiation induced oropharyngeal mucositis in patients with head and neck cancers: a randomized controlled clinical study. by Babaee N, Moslemi D, Khalilpour M, Vejdani F, Moghadamnia Y, Bijani A, Baradaran M, Kazemi MT, Khalilpour A, Pouramir M, Moghadamnia AA. (PubMed)
(2) Effect of Calendula officinalis Flower Extract on Acute Phase Proteins, Antioxidant Defense Mechanism and Granuloma Formation During Thermal Burns by Chandran PK, Kuttan R.(PubMed)
(3) Hepato and reno protective action of Calendula officinalis L. flower extract by Preethi KC, Kuttan R.(PubMed)



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