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Strange glass spheres in the Moon

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According to the Eurekalert article (see this), translucent glass globules have been found on the Moon in a study led by Dr. Zhiyong Xiao (Planetary Environmental and Astrobiological Research Laboratory, School of Atmospheric Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University), who is a core scientific team member of the first in-situ lunar mission to the Moon, Chang’E-4.

  1. The team examined images taken by the panorama camera onboard the Yutu-2 rover, and discovered several translucent spherical and dumbbell-shaped glassy globules (see the images of the article). Perching on the surface regolith, the globules are transparent to translucent, and they exhibit a light brownish color. Such centimeter-sized translucent glass globules are not found on the Moon before and their presence was unexpected.
  2. This kind of glassy globules were found also by Apollo astronauts and their size was also below 1 cm but they were mostly opaque and clast rich, which means that the glass crystals are accompanied by some other material . The sizes of tektites found at the surface of Earth, believed to be produced in terrestrial impact events, are opaque and have sizes ranging from micrometers (microtektites) to a few centimeters. They are believed to be produced in impact events creating craters.

There is an alternative theory explaining the formation of craters in planets and Moons related to the notion of the Electric Universe (see this). Electric Universe in its extreme nothing-but-version claims that electromagnetism determines everything even in astrophysical scales and that one can forget gravitation, whereas the standard view is that gravitation determines everything.

In the TGD framework, both gravitation and the analog of electromagnetism are key players in astrophysics. In particular, the Kähler magnetic flux tubes carrying monopole flux are predicted to be key players in all scales from biology to the formation of galaxies and stars. This explains anomalies such as the existence of magnetic fields in cosmic scales and also the stability of the Earth’s magnetic field.

  1. The craters, and also glass spheres, could be due to strong electric currents flowing between planets rather than due to the collisions of meteors and meteorites. Lightning strikes could cause these strong currents. Volcanic lightning is indeed known to cause the formation of glass spheres (see this). I have discussed both the standard view and the lightning theory for the formation of craters from the TGD point of view (see this).
  2. If the electric currents arrive orthogonally to the surface of the planet, this theory explains various anomalies such as the fact that craters are disk-like. For collisions of meteors one would expect all elliptic shapes depending on the arrival angle. This theory could also explain the glass balls.
  3. In the TGD framework, these currents could consist of very high energy dark matter particles (dark in the TGD sense, and thus having ℏeff=ℏgr= GMm/β0 >>ℏ, β0=v_0/c ≤ 1) arriving along monopole flux tubes of Kähler magnetic field to the surface and liberating energy as they transform to ordinary particles. This would generate a high temperature, which would melt the quartz and produce the glass spheres and dumb-bell like objects. The large value of heff at flux tubes implies a very low rate of dissipation, which would explain the association of relativistic electrons and gamma rays with lightnings. In the atmosphere, they would rapidly lose their energy.
  4. The gravitational Compton length associated with particles of mass m is given by Λgr= ℏgr/m= GM/β0= rs/2β0 and does not depend on the mass of dark particle (Equivalence Principle). If M is the Earth’s mass ME, one has Λgr>.45 cm. Intriguingly, this is the size scale of the glass spheres found on the Moon and of tektonites found on the Earth.

Moon mass is 1.2 percent of ME so that the size scale would be above 45 μm, the size scale of a cell, for the gravitational flux tubes assignable to the Moon. The size scale of one centimeter would suggest that the monopole flux tubes of the Earth’s magnetic field extends at least to the Moon, whose distance from Earth is about 30 Earth radii.

Interestingly, the size scale of snowflakes is also this and the explanation could be based one gravitational quantum coherence predicted to be possible in arbitrarily long scales (see this). The same mechanism could explain the reported and published finding of glass spheres around crop circles available here. I have discussed crop circles from the TGD point of view (see this and this).

  1. The high temperature explains boiling, which has occurred for the crops (like for a tomato in a microwave oven) would make possiböle the formation of crop circle. Meteoric iron has been found in the glass balls and could have arrived along magnetic flux tubes and originate from a meteorite arriving in the atmosphere.
  2. One cannot even avoid the crazy idea that the crop circles could be manufactured by this mechanism by an intellect associated with magnetic bodies with a very large value of heff equal to hgr. Quite generally, heff would serve as a measure of algebraic complexity and the level of intelligence in TGD based view of consciousness and cognition based on number theory (see this). Crop circles could be analogous to neural representations but in crop fields instead of brains. The large value of hgr for flux tubes is the same as for living matter in general and could explain why crop fields can have aspects, which bring to mind the brain. The conscious intelligence would however reside at the level of the magnetic body. These flux tubes would connect astrophysical objects, even galactic blackhole-like objects to distant stars and make the Universe a kind of neural network.

See the article Comparing Electric Universe hypothesis and TGD or the chapter with the same title.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles related to TGD.


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