Read the story here. Advertise at Before It's News here.
Profile image
Story Views
Last hour:
Last 24 hours:

Qingmenodus, an Early Devonian onychodontid put together from partial skulls

% of readers think this story is Fact. Add your two cents.

Two questions arise on this blogpost:
1: Do the preserved portions of the two specimens of Qingmenodus (IVPP V 1603.5 and .6, Figs 1, 2) both preserve a pair of frontals? If so they overlap.
2: Are onychodontids sarcopterygians or palaeoniscids?

Evidence presented here indicates 1: both specimens preserve frontals, and 2: both specimens are palaeoniscids, not sarcopterygians. Both of these hypotheses are contra those of the original authors (Lu and Zhu 2009, and Lu et al 2016).

Andrews et al 2005 wrote about Onychodus (Fig 1),
More anteriorly, in the middle part of the ethmosphenoid, the cartilaginous dorsal part of the braincase was at least as deep as the ossified ventral part. This is in complete contrast to the condition in other Devonian lobe-fins, where the ethmosphenoid is not only fully ossified but so firmly fused to the skull roof that the two cannot be separated.”

“The pectoral fin is poorly known, but the right humerus of the holotype (WAM 92.2.8) is well preserved (Figs 66–68). It articulates with the well-preserved scapulocoracoid. It has two distal articulation surfaces, indicating that the pectoral fin had both a radius and an ulna. The pectoral fin apparently lacked mobility in the horizontal plane, and had only weak movement in a vertical plane unless a large cartilage pad was present at the articulation.”

“There is no deltoid process present, as seen in the Rhizodontida and Osteolepiformes.”

“The pelvic fin is poorly preserved or absent on all the specimens.”

Question 2. Are onychodontids sarcopterygians? Or palaeoniscids?
Prior authors did not mention and did not test palaeoniscids. The LRT tests both palaeoniscids and sarcopterygians along with all other fish clades. Onychodus and Strunius both nest as
basal palaeoniscids. The humerus and probable radius and ulna of Onychodus (described above by Andrews et al 2006) would then represent a third convergent appearance of lobe fins. Longtime readers may recall coelacanths are not sisters to rhipidistians in the LRT, but lungfish and Polypterus are. Much depends on how one labels those fish facial bones. That problem took half a year to resolve here. It wasn’t easy and they don’t teach that at any university, yet.

Maybe someday…

Andrews M, Long J, Ahlberg P, Barwick R and Campbell K 2006. The structure of the sarcopterygian Onychodus jandemarrai n. sp. from Gogo, Western Australia: with a functional interpretation of the skeleton. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. 96 (3): 197–307.
Jessen 1966. in Piveteau (Ed.). Traite de paleontologie. Tome 4. L’origine des Vertebres, leur expansion dans les eaux douces et le milieu marin. Vol. 3. Actinopterygiens, Crossopterygiens, Dipneustes. Masson & Cie, Paris
Lu J and Zhu M 2009. An onychodont fish (Osteichthyes, Sarcopterygii) from the Early Devonian of China, and the evolution of the Onychodontiformes. Proceedings of the Royal Society B doi:10.1098/rspb.2009.0708 Published online.
Lu J et al 2016. A Devonian predatory fish provides insights into the early evolution of modern sarcopterygians. Science Advances 2(6):e1600154, doi:10.1126/sciadv.1600154


Before It’s News® is a community of individuals who report on what’s going on around them, from all around the world.

Anyone can join.
Anyone can contribute.
Anyone can become informed about their world.

"United We Stand" Click Here To Create Your Personal Citizen Journalist Account Today, Be Sure To Invite Your Friends.

Lion’s Mane Mushroom Nootropic

Mushrooms are having a moment. One fabulous fungus in particular, lion’s mane, may help improve memory, depression and anxiety symptoms. They are also an excellent source of nutrients that show promise as a therapy for dementia, and other neurodegenerative diseases. If you’re living with anxiety or depression, you may be curious about all the therapy options out there — including the natural ones.Our Lion’s Mane WHOLE MIND Nootropic Blend has been formulated to utilize the potency of Lion’s mane but also include the benefits of four other Highly Beneficial Mushrooms. Synergistically, they work together to Build your health through improving cognitive function and immunity regardless of your age. Our Nootropic not only improves your Cognitive Function and Activates your Immune System, But it benefits growth of Essential Gut Flora, further enhancing your Vitality.


Our Formula includes: Lion’s Mane Mushrooms which Increase Brain Power through nerve growth, lessen anxiety, reduce depression, and improve concentration. Its an excellent adaptogen, promotes sleep and improves immunity.

Shiitake Mushrooms which Fight cancer cells and infectious disease, boost the immune system, promotes brain function, and serves as a source of B vitamins.

Maitake Mushrooms which regulate blood sugar levels of diabetics, reduce hypertension and boosts the immune system.

Reishi Mushrooms which Fight inflammation, liver disease, fatigue, tumor growth and cancer. They Improve skin disorders and soothes digestive problems, stomach ulcers and leaky gut syndrome.

Chaga Mushrooms which have anti-aging effects, boost immune function, improve stamina and athletic performance, even act as a natural aphrodisiac, fighting diabetes and improving liver function.

Try Our Lion’s Mane WHOLE MIND Nootropic Blend 60 Capsules Today. Be 100% Satisfied or Receive a Full Money Back Guarantee. Order Yours Today by Following This Link.

Report abuse


    Your Comments
    Question   Razz  Sad   Evil  Exclaim  Smile  Redface  Biggrin  Surprised  Eek   Confused   Cool  LOL   Mad   Twisted  Rolleyes   Wink  Idea  Arrow  Neutral  Cry   Mr. Green

    Load more ...




    Email this story
    Email this story

    If you really want to ban this commenter, please write down the reason:

    If you really want to disable all recommended stories, click on OK button. After that, you will be redirect to your options page.