Hidden Giant Planet Revealed Around Tiny White Dwarf Star
The first evidence of a giant planet orbiting a dead white dwarf star has been found in the form of a disc of gas formed from its evaporating atmosphere.
The Neptune-like planet orbits a star a quarter of its size about once every ten days, leaving a comet-like tail of gas comprised of hydrogen, oxygen and sulphur in its wake.
The giant planet is orbiting the white dwarf just outside the gas disc. The blast of high-energy photons that it receives from the white dwarfs evaporates its atmosphere, which is mainly composed of hydrogen, oxygen and sulphur. Whereas much of the hydrogen is forced away from the white dwarf by its ultraviolet photons in a comet-like tail, oxygen and sulphur fall towards the white dwarf, forming the disc we have detected. The light we see from the disc comes only from a few strong emission lines: oxygen lines, which we would see as red light, light up the inner part of the disc, and sulphur lines, which would appear blue, are stronger in the outer regions of the disc.
Credit: University of Warwick/Mark Garlick
Until now, there has never been evidence of a planet that has survived a star’s transition to a white dwarf.
The star WDJ0914+1914 was identified in a survey of ten thousand white dwarfs observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Scientists at Warwick analysed subtle variations in the light emitted from the system to identify the elements present around the star.
They detected very minute spikes of hydrogen in the data, which was unusual in itself, but also of oxygen and sulphur, which they had never seen before. Using the Very Large Telescope of the European Southern Observatory in Chile to obtain more observations of this star, they found that the shape of the hydrogen, oxygen and sulphur features are typical indicators of a ring of gas.
Lead author Dr Boris Gaensicke, from the University of Warwick, said: “At first, we thought that this was a binary star with an accretion disc formed from mass flowing between the two stars. However, our observations show that it is a single white dwarf with a disc around it roughly ten times the size of our sun, made solely of hydrogen, oxygen and sulphur. Such a system has never been seen before, and it was immediately clear to me that this was a unique star.”
When the astronomers averaged all the spectra they obtained over two nights in Chile it was clear that WDJ0914+1914 was accreting sulphur and oxygen from the disc. Analysing the data, they were able to measure the composition of the disc, and concluded that it matches what scientists expect for the deeper layers of our own solar system’s ice giants, Uranus and Neptune.
The Sun will evolve into a white dwarf in about 6 billion years from now. Mars and the outer gas giants of our solar system will survive this metamorphosis. For the first few million years after its formation the white dwarf will be extremely hot and its strong EUV emission will evaporate gas from the outer atmospheres of the gas giants. A fraction of this gas will be accreted by the white dwarf and produce atmospheric lines detectable for future generations of alien astronomers.
Dr Gaensicke said: “This star has a planet that we can’t see directly, but because the star is so hot it is evaporating the planet, and we detect the atmosphere it is losing. There could be many cooler white dwarfs that have planets but lacking the high-energy photons necessary to drive evaporation, so we wouldn’t be able to find them with the same method. However, some of those planets might detectable using the transit method once the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope goes on sky.
“This discovery is major progress because over the past two decades we had growing evidence that planetary systems survive into the white dwarf stage. We’ve seen a lot of asteroids, comets and other small planetary objects hitting white dwarfs, and explaining these events requires larger, planet-mass bodies further out. Having evidence for an actual planet that itself was scattered in is an important step.”
Dr Schreiber adds: “In a sense, WDJ0914+1914 is providing us with a glimpse into the very distant future of our own solar system.”
The white dwarf we see today was once a star similar to the sun but eventually ran out of fuel, swelled up into a red giant, a few 100 times the size of the sun. During that phase of its life the star will have lost about half of its mass and what was left has shrunk dramatically ending up size of the Earth – the white dwarf is essentially the burnt-out core of the former star.
Artist’s animation of the Sun becoming a red giant
Extraordinarily, today’s orbit of the planet around the white dwarf would have been deep inside the red giant, so scattering with some other planets in the system, a kind of cosmic pool game, moved it close to the white dwarf after the red giant’s outer layers were lost.
This animation shows the white dwarf WDJ0914+1914 and its Neptune-like exoplanet. Since the icy giant orbits the hot white dwarf at close range, the extreme ultraviolet radiation from the star strips away the planet’s atmosphere. While most of this stripped gas escapes, giving the planet a comet-like tail, some of it swirls into a disc, itself accreting onto the white dwarf.
Credit; European Southern Observatory (ESO) / M. Kornmesser
Once our own sun runs out of fuel in about 4.5 billion years it will shed its outer layers, destroying Mercury, Venus, and probably the Earth, and eventually expose the burnt-out core – the white dwarf. In a companion paper led by Dr Schreiber and Dr Gaensicke and published in Astrophysical Journal Letters, they detail how this will radiate enough high energy photons to evaporate Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Just as on WDJ0914+1914, some of that atmospheric gas will end up on the white dwarf left behind by the sun, and will be observable for future generations of alien astronomers.
The astronomers argue that this planetary evaporation and subsequent accretion by young white dwarfs is probably a relatively common process and that it might open a new window towards studying the chemical composition of the atmospheres of extrasolar gas giant planets.
ESOcast 212 Light: First Giant Planet around White Dwarf Found
Credit: European Southern Observatory (ESO)
The UK authors were supported through funding from the Science and Technology Facilities Council and the Leverhulme Trust.
Contacts and sources:
Citation: Accretion of a giant planet onto a white dwarf star. Boris T. Gänsicke, Matthias R. Schreiber, Odette Toloza, Nicola P. Gentile Fusillo, Detlev Koester, Christopher J. Manser. Nature, 2019; 576 (7785): 61 DOI: 10.1038/s41586-019-1789-8
‘Cold giant planets evaporated by hot white dwarfs’ is published in Astrophysical Journal Letters, DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ab42e2
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