Read the Beforeitsnews.com story here. Advertise at Before It's News here.
Profile image
Story Views
Now:
Last hour:
Last 24 hours:
Total:

A ?comprehensive phylogeny and revised taxonomy of Diadectomorpha

% of readers think this story is Fact. Add your two cents.


From the Ponstein et al 2024 abstract:
“A 100 Ma gap separates the oldest terrestrial tetrapods and the first undisputed herbivorous tetrapods. While four clades of early tetrapod herbivores are undisputed amniotes, the phylogenetic position of Diadectomorpha with respect to Amniota has long been controversial.”

Not controversial in the LRT.
Diadectes was allied with Procolophon in the LRT in 2013 (Fig 1).

Figure 1. The evolution of Diadectes and Procolophon from tiny Romeria primus to scale. ” data-image-caption=”

Figure 1. The evolution of Diadectes and Procolophon from tiny Romeria primus to scale.

” data-medium-file=”https://pterosaurheresies.wordpress.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/diadectomorpha1.jpg?w=293″ data-large-file=”https://pterosaurheresies.wordpress.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/diadectomorpha1.jpg?w=584″ tabindex=”0″ role=”button” class=”size-full wp-image-15798″ src=”https://pterosaurheresies.wordpress.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/diadectomorpha1.jpg” alt=”Figure 1. The evolution of Diadectes and Procolophon from tiny Romeria primes to scale.” width=”584″ height=”598″ />

Figure 1. The evolution of Diadectes and Procolophon from tiny Romeria primus to scale from 2014.

Ponstein et al begin tetrapods
with Middle Devonian quadrupedal tracks from 390 million years ago.

Figure 1. Carbonodraco in situ (lower right), as originally reconstructed freehand (upper right) and using DGS methods to reconstruct the skull by coloring the bone drawing. ” data-image-caption=”

Figure 1. Carbonodraco in situ (lower right), as originally reconstructed freehand (upper right) and using DGS methods to reconstruct the skull by coloring the bone drawing.

” data-medium-file=”https://pterosaurheresies.wordpress.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/carbonodraco_recon588.jpg?w=231″ data-large-file=”https://pterosaurheresies.wordpress.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/carbonodraco_recon588.jpg?w=584″ tabindex=”0″ role=”button” class=”size-full wp-image-40998″ src=”https://pterosaurheresies.wordpress.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/carbonodraco_recon588.jpg” alt=”Figure 1. Carbonodraco in situ (lower right), as originally reconstructed freehand (upper right) and using DGS methods to reconstruct the skull by coloring the bone drawing.” width=”584″ height=”759″ />

Figure 2. Carbonodraco in situ (lower right), as originally reconstructed freehand (upper right) and using DGS methods to reconstruct the skull by coloring the bone drawing.

By the Early Permian,
280 mya, herbivorous captorhinds, bolosaurids, millerettids and diadectids were widespread, so their origin was much earlier. Carbonodraco (Fig 2), a pareiasaur ancestor close to diadectids, appeared much earlier, in the Middle Pennsylvanian, 310 mya. So that’s 80 million years after the Middle Devonian tracks. More primitive herbivorous reptiles (see figure 3) would have filled the later segment of that time gap.

Figure 3. Subset of the LRT focusing on basal Lepidosauromorpha and Diadectidae. ” data-image-caption=”

Figure 3. Subset of the LRT focusing on basal Lepidosauromorpha and Diadectidae.

” data-medium-file=”https://pterosaurheresies.wordpress.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/07/diadectids-lepidosauromorpha588.jpg?w=165″ data-large-file=”https://pterosaurheresies.wordpress.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/07/diadectids-lepidosauromorpha588.jpg?w=563″ tabindex=”0″ role=”button” class=”size-full wp-image-87199″ src=”https://pterosaurheresies.wordpress.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/07/diadectids-lepidosauromorpha588.jpg” alt=”Figure 3. Subset of the LRT focusing on basal Lepidosauromorpha and Diadectidae.” width=”584″ height=”1062″ />

Figure 3. Subset of the LRT focusing on basal Lepidosauromorpha and Diadectidae.

Ponstein et al continued,
“Historically, phylogenetic analyses have found Diadectomorpha as the sister-group to
amniotes, but recent analyses recover Diadectomorpha as sister-group to Synapsida, within Amniota. We tested whether diadectomorphs are amniotes by updating the most recent character–taxon matrix.”

In the LRT (Fig 3) Diadectomorpha nest within the Lepidosauromorpha, of which a majority, if not all, are herbivores from their Early Carboniferous start. Lepidosauromoropha immediately follow the advent of the amniotic egg in Silvanerpeton at 346–330 million years ago. So there’s a last common ancestor of lepidosauromorph herbivores likely appearing only 50–60 million years  after those Middle Devonian tracks.

“Our majority rule consensus places Diadectomorpha as sister-group to Synapsida; other methods do not recover this relationship.”

Three Ponstein et al cladograms are shown in figure 4. This cladogram suffers from taxon exclusion. Synapsida are members of the Archosauromorpha in the LRT.

Add taxa to resolve phylogenetic issues within the Ponstein et al cladograms.

Figure 4. Three cladograms from Ponstein et al 2024. Red indicates the base of the Reptilia in the LRT (Fig 3). ” data-image-caption=”

Figure 4. Three cladograms from Ponstein et al 2024. Red indicates the base of the Reptilia in the LRT (Fig 3).

” data-medium-file=”https://pterosaurheresies.wordpress.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/07/diadectids-2024-ponstein588.gif?w=153″ data-large-file=”https://pterosaurheresies.wordpress.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/07/diadectids-2024-ponstein588.gif?w=521″ tabindex=”0″ role=”button” class=”size-full wp-image-87201″ src=”https://pterosaurheresies.wordpress.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/07/diadectids-2024-ponstein588.gif” alt=”Figure 4. Three cladograms from Ponstein et al 2024. Red indicates the base of the Reptilia in the LRT (Fig 3). ” width=”584″ height=”1147″ />

Figure 4. Three cladograms from Ponstein et al 2024. Red indicates the base of the Reptilia in the LRT (Fig 3). Frames change every 2 seconds. Tan taxa are Lepidosauromorpha in the LRT. Yellow taxa are Archosauromorpha. Green taxa are basal tetrapods, not Reptilia.

The authors list Desmatodon from the Upper Carboniferous
as the oldest known undisputed herbivorous tetrapod. This is a diadectid known from some jaw materials, perhaps postdating, perhaps coeval with Carbonodraco (Fig 2). More primitive herbivores appear in the LRT (Fig 3) despite their late-survivor status. They should be counted as ghost lineages.

The taxon lists in Ponstein et al
omit large swaths of pertinent taxa. So many taxa that they do not recover the basal reptile dichtomy following scaly Silvanerpeton (Fig 3) the first known reptile based on its last common ancestor status in the LRT.

The Pontein et al phylogeny is not a comprehensive phylogeny, as they claim.

References
Ponstein J, MacDougall MJ and Fröbisch J 2024. A comprehensive phylogeny and revised taxonomy of Diadectomorpha with a discussion on the origin of tetrapod herbivory. R. Soc. Open Sci. 11: 231566. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.231566

wikiDesmatodon
wiki/Diadectomorpha


Source: https://pterosaurheresies.wordpress.com/2024/07/02/a-comprehensive-phylogeny-and-revised-taxonomy-of-diadectomorpha/


Before It’s News® is a community of individuals who report on what’s going on around them, from all around the world.

Anyone can join.
Anyone can contribute.
Anyone can become informed about their world.

"United We Stand" Click Here To Create Your Personal Citizen Journalist Account Today, Be Sure To Invite Your Friends.

Lion’s Mane Mushroom Nootropic

Mushrooms are having a moment. One fabulous fungus in particular, lion’s mane, may help improve memory, depression and anxiety symptoms. They are also an excellent source of nutrients that show promise as a therapy for dementia, and other neurodegenerative diseases. If you’re living with anxiety or depression, you may be curious about all the therapy options out there — including the natural ones.Our Lion’s Mane WHOLE MIND Nootropic Blend has been formulated to utilize the potency of Lion’s mane but also include the benefits of four other Highly Beneficial Mushrooms. Synergistically, they work together to Build your health through improving cognitive function and immunity regardless of your age. Our Nootropic not only improves your Cognitive Function and Activates your Immune System, But it benefits growth of Essential Gut Flora, further enhancing your Vitality.



Our Formula includes: Lion’s Mane Mushrooms which Increase Brain Power through nerve growth, lessen anxiety, reduce depression, and improve concentration. Its an excellent adaptogen, promotes sleep and improves immunity.


Shiitake Mushrooms which Fight cancer cells and infectious disease, boost the immune system, promotes brain function, and serves as a source of B vitamins.


Maitake Mushrooms which regulate blood sugar levels of diabetics, reduce hypertension and boosts the immune system.


Reishi Mushrooms which Fight inflammation, liver disease, fatigue, tumor growth and cancer. They Improve skin disorders and soothes digestive problems, stomach ulcers and leaky gut syndrome.


Chaga Mushrooms which have anti-aging effects, boost immune function, improve stamina and athletic performance, even act as a natural aphrodisiac, fighting diabetes and improving liver function.


Try Our Lion’s Mane WHOLE MIND Nootropic Blend 60 Capsules Today. Be 100% Satisfied or Receive a Full Money Back Guarantee. Order Yours Today by Following This Link.

Report abuse

Comments

Your Comments
Question   Razz  Sad   Evil  Exclaim  Smile  Redface  Biggrin  Surprised  Eek   Confused   Cool  LOL   Mad   Twisted  Rolleyes   Wink  Idea  Arrow  Neutral  Cry   Mr. Green

MOST RECENT
Load more ...

SignUp

Login

Newsletter

Email this story
Email this story

If you really want to ban this commenter, please write down the reason:

If you really want to disable all recommended stories, click on OK button. After that, you will be redirect to your options page.