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What Really Killed The Dinosaurs? Hint It Wasn't An Asteroid

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The dinosaurs died gradually from climate change caused by a series of severe volcanic eruptions in India at the end of the Cretaceous period, says Gerta Keller, professor of geosciences at Princeton University. This theory contradicts the long-held notion that the dinosaurs died due to climate change when a giant meteor hit the Yucatan region of Mexico.

Keller’s theory has not yet been adopted by the broader scientific community, but it is rapidly gaining traction as she and her colleagues, funded by the National Science Foundation, report findings from their field work in India and Mexico. The most significant finding is geologic evidence that the mass extinction and the impact of the giant meteor occurred at two different times.

Evidence is mounting that a series of volcanic eruptions from the Deccan Traps in India is the “smoking gun” that caused the mass extinction which wiped out the dinosaurs.

Credit: National Science Foundation, Zina Deretsky

“The Chicxulub impact hit the Yucatan about 300,000 years before the mass extinction that included the dinosaurs and therefore could not have caused it,” Keller says. “We know the age of impact because my team discovered a layer of tiny glass melt-rock spherules in Mexico and Texas.” The spherules formed when the rocks were vaporized by the impact and blown into the stratosphere–and then rained down over North and Central America. “This glass spherule layer marks the precise time of the impact 300,000 years ago,” she notes.

The sediments and fossils in the older sediments below the spherule layer and younger sediments above it reveal how life was affected by the impact.

“We see no change, not a single species died out, so the mass extinction 300,000 years later must have been caused by another catastrophe,” Keller says. She’s firm in her belief that the other catastrophe was a series of volcanic eruptions in the Deccan Traps, a volcanic mountain range that covers much of India today. The mountains, which today are 12,000 feet high, were much higher in prehistoric times.

The Deccan Traps as seen from Matheran, MH, India

Credit: Wikipedia

“Volcanic eruptions poured out lava flows after lava flows, stacking them like a layer cake,” she says. “The total volume in cubic miles was greater than the Rockies and the Sierras combined.”

Related research by volcanologists Vincent Courtillot, Steve Self, Mike Widdowson, and Anne Lise Chenet shows the lava eruptions were not continuous but occurred in pulses, with each pulse lasting about 10–to at most 100–years, and the pulses were separated by short time periods of quiescence. New results from eight subsurface cores drilled by the Oil and Gas Corporation of India in the Krishna-Godavari Basin of eastern India reveal that at least nine lava flows mark the critical volcanic phase that ended in the mass extinction. This ending phase may have occurred over as little as 10,000 to 100,000 years. For each lava eruption, fire shot in tall columns from fissures in the Earth’s surface and lofted gases into the stratosphere while the oozing lava spread sheet-like, or in rivers, up to 650 miles across India, and formed the longest lava flows on Earth.

“Their destructive nature is evident in the marine life record, which decreased by about 50 percent after the first of these long lava flows,” Keller said. “By the time of the last lava flow, the mass extinction was complete.”

The sulfur dioxide gas injected into the stratosphere converted to sulfate aerosols that caused climate cooling. The cooling lasted until the sulfate aerosols washed out as acid rain and caused the ocean to acidify in the process.

Research on smaller and more recent eruptions, such as the Laki eruption of Iceland in 1783-1784, clarified for scientists the extreme climate effects of volcanic eruptions and the resulting death and destruction of humans, animals, plants and marine life. In spite of the widespread devastation caused by Laki, mass extinction did not occur. The more recent example of Mt. St. Helen’s in Washington State has shown just how quickly a local ecosystem can come back after a volcanic eruption.

Deccan Traps near Matheran East of Mubai 

Credit: Wikipedia

Then why did it take Earth’s ecosystem half a million years to fully recover after the mass extinction that killed the dinosaurs?

“The answer seems to be the occurrence of at least four additional massive Deccan eruptions about 280,000 years after the mass extinction,” Keller says. “After those final eruptions, Earth began a full recovery leading to the evolution of life as we know it.”

Keller doesn’t disagree with scientists who believe the Chicxulub impact affected climate. The event would certainly have caused earthquakes, tsunamis, regional fires and injected huge quantities of sulfur dioxide into the stratosphere, causing cooling and acidification of the land and oceans. “The difference is that the quantity of gas injection from the main phase of Deccan eruptions was 30 to 100 times larger than the Chicxulub impact and occurred over as little as 10,000 to 100,000 years, with each pulse lasting about 10 years or more.”

Up until now, skeptics have doubted whether gas from Deccan-like eruptions reaches the stratosphere, but the relatively small 1783-1784 Laki eruption in Iceland revealed that even rather small eruptions loft gases into the stratosphere.

Until recently, it was also believed that the last phase of Deccan volcanic eruptions occurred over a million-year period, which would have been long enough for the environment to recover between eruptions, thus preventing a runaway extinction effect. Vincent Courtillot and collaborators from the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris have recently discovered that the main phase of Deccan eruptions was much shorter and culminated near the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Known as the “K-T boundary” to scientists, it marks the end of the Mesozoic Era and is associated with the mass extinction.

Most importantly, field work by Keller and her collaborators revealed that the mass extinction coincided with the end of the main phase of Deccan eruptions suggesting that volcanism is the “smoking gun” that killed the dinosaurs.

“These new discoveries have made the volcanism-mass extinction theory a very viable cause for the end-Cretaceous mass extinction,” Keller says.

According to NSF Program Director Harold Lane: “Dr. Keller’s recent NSF-supported research stokes continued debate about the cause of the near extinction of earth’s biota at the end of the Cretaceous–a major event in the history of life on earth.”

Keller and her collaborators  work was included in an History Channel feature titled What Really Killed the Dinosaurs.

Contacts and sources:

Article by  Diane E. BanegasNational Science Foundadtion

 

Gerta Keller, Princeton University
Sedimentary Geology and Paleobiology 

Related Awards
#0750664 SGER: Deccan Volcanism Implicated in K-T Mass Extinction 

 

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    Total 51 comments
    • nimbunje

      Fear the cold .

    • BeastLee

      yeah uhhh i cant understand any of this article. the asteroid finished off the already dieing dinosaurs yes. the layer of metal shows when this asteroid hit and no dinosaur fossils are found above it.. im not sure what this 300,000 years later reference is actually talking about

      • Gojiroiscoming

        The Yucatan impact happened 300,000 BEFORE the mass extinction, but the lava flows start before and end shortly after the mass extinction. Thats why she believes the lava flows are what caused the extinction.

    • Mayhem

      What Dinosaur’s?

      I have yet to see any credible evidence. I’m not saying there weren’t many splendid things like we can hardly imagine. What I am saying is the evidence for Dino’s like your headline image is skant at best.

      I’m with you on climate change so long as the “A” word isn’t used. Ice Age coming!. Warming stopped nearly 20 years ago and it had nothing to do with us.

      Believe little of what you see let alone any of what you hear.

      • Praise Jebus

        meds working or not sir nutjob? :lol:

        • Mayhem

          Sounds like you think you might have some credible evidence? Present some to me so that I can tear your puny knowledge to shreds.

          And that’s Mr Nutjob! to you.

        • Mayhem

          I’ll throw that question open. What Dinosaur’s. Then I’ll get stuck into the Strawman if that’s alright. I know I’m talking to myself.

          I really was hoping to get links to Museum exhibitions showing towering statues purporting to be T-Rex or such like. Copies all of them and from incomplete carcasses of dubious quality let alone integrity from contamination. They most assuredly are not sound Science. They deserve to be little more than mildly interesting but historically significant all the same.

          I don’t doubt that extremely skilled people blessed with great patience, dedication, passion, obsession not to mention attention to detail did indeed dig up skeletons and they did this task well. Ask them what they found and they must tell you that they found little really and mostly, I believe, They just found what they were paid to find. “You said bones boss what did you expect?”

          I love dinosaurs and fossils and stuff like history but I could also see that there was little conclusive evidence for the currently popular ideal. You know? Like what they taught us in elementary school, or high school, where and when they thought they could get away with it. The evidence is skant as I recall but make of it what you will.

          There are approximately zero complete dinosaur skeletons don’t you know. So much is just made up you wouldn’t believe. Well we would actually. Read a book.

      • Gojiroiscoming

        All the bones dug up, from places all over the world, dont convince you they existed?

        What more do you need man?

        Here’s a link to a T-Rex that was 98% complete.

        http://www.geekologie.com/2011/10/most-complete-dinosaur-skeleton-to-date.php

        • Mayhem

          I know of the exhibit you refer to, Gojiro. It is not sound Science but very interesting all the same. All those bones you allude to do not amount to near as much as you might think.

          I am convinced that many splendid things like I can hardly imagine existed. This could well include Dinosaurs obviously. I doubt the claim that we have a T-Rex that is 98% complete, all the same, thank you for your thoughts.

          I have no answers only an opinion and the privilege to speak it. I did ask anyone who wished to challenge me to define ‘Science’ and you could not do me that courtesy. I will not explain myself any more to people who don’t know what this term means.

          I found replying to you a waste of my time.

        • Mayhem

          But for others who may be interested let me say.

          The Therepod that Mr Gojiro puts up as evidence would fit in the palms of my hands. It is not a skeleton but a fossil. Define fossil. It is beautiful and interesting in and of itself.

          To say that this extrapolates to cover my original claim which can still be seen in the 3rd? post of this thread is a big stretch of the imagination. T-Rex would be a Therepod yes I will give you that. Your point Mr Gojiro?

          Not exactly towering now is it? It stands at 75cm (30″) in length and therefore no more than 150mm (6″)in height and is an infant probably still drinking mothers milk.

          Please everyone! Do not be afraid to challenge me. I will listen, assimilate and examine what I know at the drop of a hat but I expect my time be respected. Hands up how many thought I was screwed? It took me a little while to defend that and being presented with partial information is rude.

          Bring me skill!

    • Anonymous

      so what will we do to preserve life in this event other than go the same way that these critters did ? It begs the question why give this that much concern ???

    • Anonymous

      Well, this guy has it closer than most scientists. He’s just narrowed it down too far.
      Those eruptions that he talks of just in one location were WORLDWIDE. Learn the bible and you’ll learn that it was the BIG FLOOD and, yes, that caused “climate change” (plus DROWNING).

      Keep analyzing and learn the “rest of the story”.

    • Marvo76

      IF you look at the impact at the Yucatan, and extrapolate the position of the continets at that time, and remembering the law “for every action there is an eq

      • Marvo76

        sorry it posted before I was done, if you look at the yucatan impact and extrapolate the posistion of the continents at that time, and remembering the law “for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.” It appears to me at least, that the impact caused the deccan traps to form…anyone else see this?

      • Marvo76

        sorry it posted before I was done, if you look at the oposition of the continents, being on almost opposite sides of the earth, and remember the law”for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction”, then the shock wave of the Yucatan impact probably CREATED the Deccan traps…by cracking the underlying mantle and allowing the rise of the magma…

    • JWMACEY

      Keller is a moron and this article is asinine. The Deccan Traps are a result of the Chicxulub impact. Is this more climate change nonsense to sell the public on carbon tax?

      • Ozzie_Thinker

        It looks that way to me, but the article is not “complete nonsense”. It is rather, as usual, ‘circumstantial science’ similar to the comets theory. It is likely a series of volcanos were triggered, but to what effect? I rather favour Rosine Lallement’s galactic energy wave cycles. Kinda destroys “science” as we know it, but boy it explains a lot of the “anomalies”!

        • Mayhem

          Indeed, Ozzie, Rosine Lallement presents a very interesting theory that is sound as a whole and does most assuredly challenge some of our scientific belief. I think we might soon experience her hypothesis in real life.

          KIWI!

    • anonymous

      MaM are you grumpy or what? Did you get up on the wrong side yet again? I really believe people should start using their eternal spirits to ‘see’ and they don’t even call me a nutjob, just WRONG. Did you know, that eternal not only means forward forever, but backwards since the beginning too. Oh well. Have a nice day.

      • Mayhem

        I’m not all all sure how you read ‘grumpy’ into what I have to say in this thread.

        I also don’t get your ‘nutjob’ reference.

        I can think of no reason your definition of eternal could not be true.

        My quest for understanding continues.

        • Mayhem

          I’m left to answer myself yet again. Just as well I like the sound of my own voice.

          “meds working or not sir nutjob? :lol:

          I thought, Mr Anonymous, that you considered that I was attacking that poster, Praise J….?, whereas I believe I was only after demanding he/she examine their knowledge and matching the tone I perceive was intended toward me.

          You’re behind if you don’t know already that everyone here worries I’m as mad as a hatter. Let alone right up myself. That I think that I know everything despite evidence to the contrary probably doesn’t help.

          If any wish to address me as such they can show a little respect but I do thank you for your concern.

    • harleyborgais

      Although I have not read this article yet, just on the title I can tell you that the Comet impact was the cause of the volcanic activity. Learn how seismic waves translate through the Earth, and you should see that most major volcano activity is triggered by asteroid/meteor impacts on the opposite (or roughly opposite) side or Earth.

    • Anonymous

      Don’t believe it! Climate Change was brought by Dinosaurs driving in big SUV & using dirty coal for powering their need for energy! It was Dinosaurs activity that did the climate change, as to day it’s human activity that is doing the climate.
      Stupid Dinosaurs! Should have put a price on the CO2 to avoid climate change!
      Well, there wasn’t a Saint Al of the Gore among Dinosaurs & they didn’t thought of having the UN & Agenda 21 to save them! Stupid Dinosaurs!

      • Mayhem

        Ha ha!

        Not like us though, Eh? We’is cwever no’ like siwy dinosor.

        Thanks for the laugh.

        • Mayhem

          (hopes no one notices Middle-aged-Mayhem is talking to himself. Again)

          Speaking of coal.

          How come I can grow grass seed till harvest on a pile of coal or pile of alluvial rock chip but not on a pile of fertiliser?

          Why is the “Peak Flow” myth about oil not openly debunked?

          How can we be so arrogant to believe that Climate Change could possibly be Anthropogenic.?

          Why are Pigeons attracted to large scale electricity generators only to suffer a slow sleepy sickness death?

          Isn’t Coal and Oil the great evil while electricity remains the great good?

          My questions are off topic and rhetorical.

    • Anonymous

      Well, that overturns all those scientists who say it was an asteroid that hit the earth, but be that as it may….. what is important here are these critical pieces of information:

      1. The Elite, bankers, corps and politicians are meeting a second time to do what they got busted doing the first time and everyone refused their carbon tax. This time they are going to try the scam again.

      2. They will continue with the same lies and eliminate the same scientists who are not part of their scam. These are scientists who claim that whatever global warming that maybe occuring here, is also occurring in the rest of the solar system which means its not man made global warming, ITS COSMIC IN NATURE AND NO AMOUNT OF CARBON TAX WILL FIX IT.

      3. Remember also a whistle blower from the illuminati disclosed that the plan was to globalize, and to stop the profit and loss cycle every 70 years where they always have to do a war to recoup losses and start the cycle over again, they decided they would just create a slave work force, with the people still believing they are free, otherwise it would be too expensive to control them militarily and probably could not be done.

      He said they determined the path to slavery where their wealth would be constant and always was good only through buying up all corporations, and whatever the slaves did not spend on survival issues such as food and utilities, they would garner all remaining wealth from the masses through taxes, such as health care tax and carbon tax.

      The carbon tax was to serve as the final coup de grace since it will be in the hundreds of dollars a month. NO LIFE, NO FUTURE AND NO JOY for us stupid filthy masses of ignorant humanity. These are the satanic merchants of death and slavery. That will be our New World Order and as Ron Paul so aptly stated, “We will experience a DARK AGES the likes of which we have never seen before”.

    • harleyborgais

      Yup, I knew it before reading it…
      “Most importantly, field work by Keller and her collaborators revealed that the mass extinction coincided with the end of the main phase of Deccan eruptions suggesting that volcanism is the “smoking gun” that killed the dinosaurs.”

      So what caused the Deccan Eruptions than? Huh?
      That was the Chicxulub impact that hit the Yucatan, or south of Gulf of Mexico…and I bet that India is exactly on the opposite side of the Earth too….

      I checked from Arizona, on a globe, and Madagascar is the opposite side of Earth from Arizona.
      Pakistan/Afghanistan seems to be the opposite side of Earth from Chickulum Crater…
      Which is only a little north of the Deccan Plateau.

      You see how that worked…I knew these facts would exist, because I thought it through…
      What caused the volcanic activity, and what was the effect of the Chickulub impact on the other side of the Earth (I asked)…..
      Then, what is the relationship between these two events in space, and time….
      They occurred on opposite sides of the Earth, and the volcanic activity started when the Meteor hit on the other side of Earth….Duh….
      So the effect of the meteor on the other side of Earth, was that volcanic activity…and that volcanic activity killed tons of life all over Earth, and took hundreds of millenia to calm down and stabilize.
      Earth is like a tennis ball filled with molten rock and metals, with a grain of sand thick crust, and a thin coat of oil for an atmosphere, with the molten crust spinning because of the solar wind (which makes the Earths atmosphere spin faster, making the crust spin, and inward/downward motion of heavier metals via Gravity increases spin towards center, which increases heat, liquidity, speed, and that spin generates the Earths magnetic field, which keeps out much radiation, finding a balance point, determining the length of the Day and the radiation on the Surface of Earth)…
      So if you shoot a BB gun into this object spinning in space (1,000mph at surface), you will REALLY mess it up, and it will take a while for that damage to settle…duh!
      :shock: :lol: :eek: :oops: :twisted: :wink: :mrgreen: :cry:

    • Anonymous

      Not another Dinosaur extinction theory. This is as bad as the theories on the Kennedy assasinations. Everybody and their uncle has to put their two cents in.

    • jamieeric

      go away bad science.

    • carveorstarve

      So where does our “evolution” fit into this? Where we as monkeys hiding in caves? Or did we just come out of nowhere claiming the land after the dinosaurs went extinct? Hey maybe it was us who killed the dinos. So we could live here. That is just as believable as any other theory.

      • Mayhem

        Hmm? May I ask this?

        If we were a composite of say monkeys and alien visitors. Who after a pre planned set of GM mods cruised off promising to come back every time the Mayan calender ran out. To collect all the gold we had collected up for them. Just saying right?

        Then would it matter much? We are advised to be ready for a “Didn’t see that coming” moment in our history and soon I think. I don’t want to make light of this moment as I think the new black is coming and it will be white.

        Thanks for making me think and sorry folks I’ve been given lots of words today. :lol:

      • Vallarta Mark

        On the ever so slight possibility that you were wondering about the survival of mammals at the time of the extinction of the dinosaurs, check out a copy of “Wonderful Life” by Stephen Gould. It appears there were no monkeys hiding in caves at that time. Future mammals were depending upon the survival of a very small, fur covered animal. Evolution takes a long time. (Lamarck was wrong. I can’t just want longer arms to get at the cookie jar and they will grow, sadly.)

        • Mayhem

          Thank you, Mark, I will peruse that book for interest.

          When you say evolution takes a long time I ask. What good is half an eye that does not yet work but will, finally, in the very distant future?

          I understand patience as a virtue but I can not imagine that this is what was meant. I could be wrong and am prepared to have my knowledge challenged.

        • Mayhem

          Long story short. Mr Gould’s book Wonderful Life is interesting but controversial. I see that some of his errors have been revealed and recognised. Largely sound and well reasoned opinion but perhaps intentionally controversial as Mr Gould at time of writing knew that many were not going to agree with him.

          Thank you, Mark, for your suggestion. Most interesting and thought provoking.

    • Anonymous

      @ immature-Mayhem

      You might as well speak to yourself again, because no one here takes you serious anyway………
      have nice day and don’t forget to take your medicine……don’t want to appear any nuttier…….

      • Mayhem

        Thank you (takes mental picture)

    • Jacksdad

      I think it’s ever so slightly possible the dinosaurs are the end move used once humanity becomes uncontrollable and a menace too vast to control, the “cleaners”. Imagine if we woke up tomorrow and there were millions of hungry dinosaurs to deal with…………..life would have new meaning and survival would become the new game instantaneously. Then once the human herd becomes manageable again the dinosaurs die off or are killed off by the “Gods” and then the cycle repeats.

      Just a simple thought up theory that cannot be disproven. Showing we know next to nothing in the grand scale of things.

      • Mayhem

        All things are possible.

        We live in exciting times.

        The instantaneous global communication we enjoy will cause truth to well up across earth and it is going to be good in the long run.

        • Mayhem

          Oops take the term ‘will cause’ out and replace with ‘is helping to’ if you would be so kind.

    • Rayden

      Although this is a incedent that happened. I believe that these events were also assested by the manipulation of Terestral beings to begin the inhabatation of this planet. the dinosaurs were in the way of accomplishing that, those that were not a threat were left alone.

      • Anonymous

        you seem really intelligent and well educated. i believe everything you say.

    • yes2truth

      The Flood killed the dinosaurs – end of.

      • wanda

        Dear Yes2Truth… here’s some truth… http://www.akisstobreakthespell.com/

        You are believing lies… the bible is a monumental fraud. It has the fingerprints of the criminal “Chosen” all over it. Here’s a hint… Christianity is an Abrahamic religion. Judaism is an Abrahamic religion… as is Islam… Christianity and Islam are off shoots of Judaism… that means they are Judaism. Seek the truth…

        • yes2truth

          I am one of the chosen – called and chosen.

          Belief in Yashua Anointed is NOT religion. Yashua Anointed DID NOT come to this earth in order to start a religion. ALL Religions belong to the Devil and are created by his agents – the descendants of Cain – the reptilians. Cain was the offspring of Eve and the Devil. Mainstream Christianity, The Roman Cult, Judaism and Islam are satanic religions.

          Legion = a multifaceted demon that Yashua Anointed cast into the Gadarene Swine. All he did was reinvent himself as RE-Ligion.

          The pre-flood world was completely different from our world – no weather – no rain – no cold – near perfect ambient temperatures. Many life forms were giant sized compared to ours including human beings. The remains of many dinosaurs have been found at the tops of hills suggesting that’s where they sought refuge from the rising waters.

      • Mayhem

        Just because you say so does not make it so.

        I quote…

        “The remains of many dinosaurs have been found at the tops of hills suggesting that’s where they sought refuge from the rising waters.”

        I say…

        I would be very interested in any evidence that you could lend me that ANY Dinosaurs were found where you suggest and for the reason you suggest. I can not find any such evidence independent of your claim.

        You do know how the shells may have got to the top of the mountain, don’t you?

        • yes2truth

          When the ocean sized acquifers broke forth they caused massize ruptures in the earth’s surface which now show as geological anomalies leaving ignorant secular gelogists scratching their heads.

          As far as evidence goes for the dinosaurs you might like to give up first on the lie that the earth is billions of years old. The earth is young – if it were old it would not have a molten layer beneath the hard crust. Once you have done that research creationist web pages – not secular know nothing web pages with their stupid inaccurate carbon 14 dating processes etc etc.

        • Mayhem

          I see by your reply, yes2truth, that you do know of one way that the shells got to the top of the mountain. The most likely way if I may add.

          I note that your posts are often scattered with words like, ignorant, lie, inaccurate and stupid. You are blind and afraid, I see this, but you can get help for that. Just give it all up, cede control, and feel the weight lifted.

          To save my time and yours I suggest you agree to disagree with me. I am a realist believer you, Sir, are a fundamentalist. Not much common ground between us.

          I can tell that you are blind because you don’t read so good do you? I have asked at least twice that people define science to show me they are worthy of my time and to indicate their ability to reason and think.

          You just stole half an hour because I let you and that is my error now though you have been warned.

        • yes2truth

          Anyone not of The Truth can only be blind and deaf and thereby ignorant.

          Romans 1:18-22 (KJV) For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who hold The Truth in unrighteousness; 19 Because that which may be known of God is manifest in them; for God hath shewed it unto them. 20 For the invisible things of Him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even his eternal power and Godhead; so that they are without excuse: 21 Because that, when they knew God, they glorified Him not as God, neither were thankful; but became vain in their imaginations, and their foolish heart was darkened. 22 PROFESSING THEMSELVES TO BE WISE, THEY BECAME FOOLS.

        • Mayhem

          … and you, yes2truth, are a disrespectful nasty little distractionalist possessing few endearing qualities…

          I have no time for you, unless you answer my clearly put question, but I do thank you for your offer to read Scripture together and I heed the very clear warning contained in Romans 1:18-22. Do you?

          That you used this fellowship of ours to threaten me is your burden to carry not mine.

          Good day Sir.

        • yes2truth

          As I said to you and the evil wretch Dib 20 times or more, intellectuals are dime a dozen and their only ‘attributes’ are arrogance, ignorance and vanity, so they don’t have much going for them do they? LOL

          If we then add in the fact that they are all Spiritually dead, you and they really should join their intellectual secular fellows where they will have much in common, i.e. blather, humbug and BS.

    • Mayhem

      A Short History of Nearly Everything by Bill Bryson is a mind blower.

      Don’t read the chapter on extinctions if you don’t want to cry your eyeballs out. Oh the in-humanity!

      This book has been rated by much better than me as a must have Science primer for our Schools. This book rates so high on all the buyers guides satisfaction scales it’s almost scary. Bill Bryson! Keep asking ‘but why?’ for me if you would be so kind.

      I think the Truth might be getting out but I must work hard on the Way.

      ps Bill Bryson is a Comic the book tries to be a delight and often succeeds as it de-mystifies all that Science gobble-de-gook. Define Science for me please?

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